Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Economy of Malaysia Essay Example

Economy of Malaysia Essay Example Economy of Malaysia Essay Economy of Malaysia Essay But subsidies are essential, and has always been so to ensure the survival of all persons in Malaysia especially those from the lower-incomes groups including the middle class. The plan of removing subsidies and using the money saved to channel financial assistance directly to the poor is being now thrown around. But alas, this really will not work given the rise of corruption and discrimination in Malaysia. Even today, there are many complaints that the NOUN-led BAN government discriminates against persons belonging to (or alleged to be supporters of) other Opposition parties/persons. Connections are important in Malaysia when it comes to receiving benefits and opportunities, and that is why it is best to Just maintain subsidies for all essential items that affect survival and normal day living of all Malaysian. Remember, subsidies are only for the basic needs. With the opening of markets, and the entry of foreign companies this will mean that the Malaysian government money may have to be given to these foreign companies as subsidies to maintain the low prices that people In Malaysia pays. Why pay the foreign companies? Because there Is no choice for Just paying local rent service/material providers as this would be a violation of the free trade equal competition requirement. Today, subsidies with regard to electricity Is paid to Teenage but when another foreign utilities company comes In, then that company too will have to be paid subsidies. Whose fault? The NOUN-led BAN government but we have to pay for Its mistakes In the past today and tomorrow. Subsidy, at best, Is a poor mechanism to make food/fuel/services affordable to the less fortunate. Because of the nature of goods and services being subsidized, preventing subsidy reaching the wrong hands Is difficult. Put It another way, getting subsidy to be enjoyed by the target people Is tough because these goods and services are consumed widely. Besides, subsidy often create distortions In a market- driven economy giving the false Impression that the cost of production Is low. Hence, subsidy should be given out to specific deserving Individuals through a concession system on selected goods and services (such as medicine, public services). A better form of assistance to deserving citizens Is through financial assistance paid according to needs. The people of a country must learn how to live according to oral prices and this will make It more In tune with global competition. Economics By Yakima as subsidies to maintain the low prices that people in Malaysia pays. Why pay the foreign companies? Because there is no choice for Just paying local equal competition requirement. Today, subsidies with regard to electricity is paid to Teenage but when another foreign utilities company comes in, then that company we have to pay for its mistakes in the past today and tomorrow. *Subsidy, at best, is a poor mechanism to make food/fuel/services affordable to the preventing subsidy reaching the wrong hands is difficult. Put it another way, getting subsidy to be enjoyed by the target people is tough because these goods and services are consumed widely. Besides, subsidy often create distortions in a market- driven economy giving the false impression that the cost of production is low. Hence, subsidy should be given out to specific deserving individuals through a concession system on selected goods and services (such as medicine, public services). A better form of assistance to deserving citizens is through financial assistance paid world prices and this will make it more in tune with global competition.

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Brazil exchange rates regime history and analysis from 1960 to 1975 Essay

Brazil exchange rates regime history and analysis from 1960 to 1975 (economics paper) - Essay Example This period was also characterised by import substitution strategy that was aimed at improving balance of trade, however the policy maker later realised that the adjustments would be even more effectively managed using the exchange rate system. During the period Brazil exports become more competitive and there was slow inflation in the economy and it seized to be termed as a developing country, there are various reasons that led to the resistant of the policy makers to change the exchange rate regime. There are three types of exchange regimes and they include fixed exchange rate, float exchange rate and pegged exchange rate regime, the fixed exchange rate regime is that which the currency of a country has direct convertibility to another currency. The float rates is a regime that involves letting the supply and demand in the market to determine exchange rate but the economy can intervene in order to avoid depreciation, finally the pegged float is a regime where the currency is pegged to some value which is periodically adjusted or fixed. In 1968 pol Brazil exchange rate regime: In 1968 policy makers introduced a crawling peg system which was based on frequent and small adjustment in the exchange rate, the frequent adjustments were made to signify the changes in inflation and prices in Brazil, this exchange rate regime led to long term stability in the Brazilian currency the real and for this reason the policy makers did not find any reason to change the exchange rate regime at the time. The pegged exchange system reduced uncertainty in exchange rates of the currency, this is because the individuals would have the knowledge that the currency would not devalue or revalue by a large margin and for this reason future production was made easier regarding production. This system that Brazil adopted also reduced speculative attacks associated with other forms of exchange systems, however the economy could not get speculative gains from this type of exchange rate system. During this period also Brazil experienced slow inflation and prices become more competitive in the international market, this system also allowed the country to improve its balance of payment and therefore policy makers did not have the need to change the exchange rate regime due to the high growth experienced. During this period the policy makers believed that the balance of trade was best managed through trade policies such as tariffs, subsidies and import control, for this reason therefore there was increased industrial expansion to undertake import substitution and this ed to spectacular growth in brazil, Brazil exports become more competitive in the international due to slow inflation in the economy and Brazil seized to be termed as a developing country. Due to this strategy therefore the policy makers did not concentrate much on the significance of the exchange regime to manage balance of trade. However the policy maker later realised that the adjustments would be even more effectively managed using the exchange rate system. Before 1971 the US had not floated its currency and because

Friday, February 7, 2020

Factors Affecting Marketing Strategy Term Paper

Factors Affecting Marketing Strategy - Term Paper Example In this sense, Dr. Thunder can be asserted as being a low-involvement brand. There have been no major advertising campaigns run by Wal-Mart to market Dr. Thunder as a brand. For this reason, the recommended marketing strategy is a newly developed. The reason behind developing a new marketing strategy for Dr. Thunder is to highlight the subliminal attraction of the brand, as the brand name is similar to internationally popular Dr. Pepper. Market Size, Performance and Growth From the review of U.S Census on the size of the market segment to which the marketing campaign of Dr. Thunder would target, it has been found that the marketing campaign would target around 3 million Americans. Over the past 10 years, it has been noticed that the target market segment has grown for about 7.7% (United States Census Bureau, 2013). Moreover, the target segment would expand by another 8.9% in the coming ten years. Upon understanding the dynamics of soft drink industry in USA, it is found that the foll owing three factors have an impact on the consumer behavior of this industry: 1. The top most influential factor in this regard is health concerns amongst consumer circles. Consumers perceive that carbonated or fizzy drinks have wrong affects on their health and thus avoid drinking soft drinks at all or usually purchase these drinks. 2. Size and design of the packaging also influences consumer behavior. If a soft drink is offered in a glass bottle, it is not possible for customers to take it home or travel along with a bottled soft drink. On the other hand, a canned or plastic bottled soft drink would be seen as facilitating and thus consumers would prefer to purchase it. 3. Lastly, the soft drink industry in the world is perceived as the most competent and saturated industry. Presence of single handedly market share sweeping companies like Pepsi and Coca Cola makes it difficult for other brands to survive in the market (Mise, Nair, Odera, & Ogutu, 2013). Reference Group and Diffusi on of the Marketing Campaign Soft drink brands are usually more popular amongst younger target audience. For this reason, it can be asserted that the most influential reference group for Dr. Thunder would be the social circle of teenagers. As the majority of the US population is comprised by young generation, and the social circle of young audience is identified as the most influential reference group, it can be suggested that a marketing strategy focused on targeting a younger audience would achieve the quickest diffusion rate. Moreover, adopting a deterministic model would help Wal-Mart to the state of acceptance by a particular segment of buyers of Dr. Thunder and overcome the flaws in production and marketing strategies. The diffusion determinants pertaining to Dr. Thunder are the perceived health advantages to customers, low riskiness in purchase, easy to use packaging of the drink and ability to quench thirst (Saha & Theingi, 2009). Diffusion Enhancement Strategy To enhance th e diffusion rate for Dr. Thunder, the marketing strategy would primarily target college and school students. Moreover, the target audience belonging to the age bracket of 25-30 years would also be focused in the marketing strategy. To attract the attention of the target audienc

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Social historical background Essay Example for Free

Social historical background Essay Religious festivals were celebrated in Athens to pay homage to the God Dionysus, the patron of wine. He brought joy and fun but rage and thoughtlessness too. This is similar to the effects of wine on people; wine makes people either happy or thoughtless. Dionysus died in winter and was reborn in spring. The festival took place for five days in spring to worship the rebirth of Dionysus and grape vines. In the mind of an ancient Greek person, the theatre was a product of Dionysus. Therefore Sophocles, when writing the play, included a scene of thanks to Dionysus which the chorus perform. This would have been interpreted by the Athenians as a noble inclusion and made Sophocles popular. The festival evolved from the rural town of Dionysia. In the large cities dramatic performances took place. The dramatic element developed when competitions called for playwrights to design plays and showcase them at the festivals. Two popular forms of drama materialised from these competitions: Tragedy and comedy. Tragedies aimed to teach religious lessons. Sophocles was a tragic playwright and his play Antigone is an example of this. Comedies were seen as trivial and a waste of time to ancient Greeks. Comedies joked about the gods and intellectuals, albeit in a respectful manner. The theatre in ancient Athens had the ability to teach moral lessons, inform of contemporary issues or amuse. It was a powerful tool and was used by governments/polis to influence peoples opinions and keep their populations up to date with current affairs. For this reason the government encouraged all men to go to the theatre. Those who could not afford to go were even offered free grants. Antigone was aimed at an Athenian audience. The play showed the downfall of man and highlighted how bad Thebes was. Athens was a democracy whilst Thebes was under dictatorship. Men visiting the theatre would see how oppressive the life of a Theban was thus increasing support for democracy. This mattered to the local polis because if the people were against a partys ideas they would not be elected in further terms. Role of Women in Society A woman was meant to be obedient to the ruling man in her life. Once a girl reached thirteen years of age she was negotiable for marriage. Women in Athens were devoid of rights. They could not go out of the house unless it was to see another woman and could not vote or influence the government. Women were not allowed to go to the theatre. The reason women were treated with so much injustice is because they were viewed by men as uncontrollable and wild. However women did play an important part of everyday Athenian life as they ran the house. In some ways men were indebted to women. Although women were generally viewed in this light, the audience of Antigone were ambivialent as to which way they viewed her. Antigone articulates the fears of every Athenian male. She is uncontrollable, untrustworthy. In this way Antigone would have been received negatively in the eyes of an ancient Greek man. However she stands for issues which Athens support such as democracy and the importance of a proper burial. Athenians had deep rooted hate for dictatorship, therefore when Antigone goes against Creon she would have won support for her character. There is ambiguity into which way the audience would have sided, but this was planned. The ambiguity forces the audience to think about the issues and politics of the play. A society at war As Antigone was being created a war was unfolding in the Peloponnese area. This was occurring as a result of a long dispute between the alliances of Sparta and Athens. Thebes was one of Spartas allies, thus was against Athens. Sophocles might use Thebes as the setting of the play as Athenians were against the city thus building more support for the city of Athens. The issue of war was contemporary, therefore the Athenian government would have wished to have it discussed in Athens favour at the amphitheatre. Sophocles and fellow Athenian men would have no doubt been adversely affected by the war. Sophocles might be trying to show that there are undesirable affecs from a war. After all, the incidents did start off when Polynices attacked Athens. Therefore, Sophocles might be trying to show that the war affects not only a nation as a whole but individual circumstances such as families and relationships. In an Athenian audience, Creon might have been viewed negatively given the fact that he was against everything that Athens stood for; Athens was a democracy whilst Thebes was an Oligarchy. An Oligarchy is a government ruled by a few influential members and is the opposite to a democracy. When Creon goes against the rules of the gods, the audience would have interpreted this negatviely. Although he punished Antigone for going against his word, which might have won him support, the crime he is punishing her for is not a crime but an action of respect for the dead. The Influence of the Gods Zeus was the final son of Cronus and Rhea. The other children, upon birth, were swallowed by their father, Cronus, as he was afraid they would overcome him. However, when Zeus was born he was hidden by his mother inside a cave, and Cronus was given a rock, disguised as a baby, to swallow. When Zeus grew up, he ordered his father to regurgitate the stone and his siblings. The male children overcame Cronus and divided up the world. Zeus became the God of Gods for doing what was right, and received the skies and the heavens. Poseidon and Hades received the sea and the underworld respectively. As Zeus was the king of Gods he was worshipped by all. Zeus was revered and respected for if he was not, he was known out of anger to throw bolts of lightning to the ground. Just the mention of going against Zeus would have caused outcry. Antigone shows reverance to Hades, god of the underworld. Hades role was to ensure entry to the underworld occurred rightfully. It was believed when a Greek person died they crossed the river of Acheron, river of life, from the baks of life to the banks of death by boat. In order to traverse the river they had to be given their rites, buried and have a coin under their tongue to pay the boats captain, Charon. This job was carried out by women and is the reason why Antigone feels so passionately about burying her brother. If a person was left unburied or lacked the coin under their mouth, they would roam the banks of life and could not cross to the banks of death. Therefore when Polynices is not buried he is left to roam the lands, so Antigone goes to give him the burial he deserves. The Playwright Sophocles was one of Ancient Greeces greatest playwrights. The reason that Sophocles was such a good playwright is because he had an ability to rebel conventional drama and produce plays that provoke debate. In Antigone, he gives the genuine thoughts and feelings of women in ancient Greece, which must have been difficult seeing as men and women were so detached. Apart from being a playwright, Sophocles was a politician and an Athenian General. He played an active part against the allies of Sparta in the Peloponnesian war and was a hero for Athens. Antigones base is war, the war fought between two brothers, between family members or father and son. As Sophocles had so much experience in war this story would have greatly appealed to him. The Oedipus Curse Oedipus is cursed to wed his mother and kill his father. The curse is a result of Oedipus father raping a young boy. Oedipus fulfills the curse and impregnates his mother with four children. When Oedipus finds out what he has done he blinds himself and his wife/mother commits suicide. Oedipus then abdicates his role as king to his two sons, Etocles and Polynices. Prior to the play, the curse is inherited by the sons as a manifestation of jealousy; both wish to be king but cannot. They decide that every year they will alternate who is monarch. Etocles is first to rule for one year but will not hand over power when Polynices turn arrives. A fight ensues and the brothers kill eachother. An audience, upon learning the characters were descendants of the incestuous Oedipus, would have perceived Antigone and her sister as filthy, cursed individuals. The audience would expect the characters to commit grave and shocking crimes. The audiences expectations come true when Antigone disobeys Creon. However, Creon might have also been expected to fail as he was Oedipus brother. When Sophocles makes the characters do what the audience expect, the audience would have interpreted this as curses never die and are inherited by ones family. The audience would have evoked a response of fear. The Life and Times of a greek citizen Men were either politicians, farmers or fighters whilst women brought up the family and helped religious festivals. This extraneous work and the lack of medicinal resources meant that people had a short life span. Even healthy people could die prematurely by an illness or disease. To combat this citizens ate healthy and exorcised. A meal was simple but full of vitamins, vegetables and oil. The family of an Athenian was very important and was built on love. Therefore, when the Athenian audience saw the fueds in Antigones Theban family, the royal family, they would have been disgusted to think people were being led by such a bad example. Thebes was located inland whilst Athens was located near the sea. This made Athens naval fleet useless when it came to attacking Thebes, whilst Thebes naval fleet caused havoc on Athens. Argos is located south of both Thebes and Athens, near the sea and was a neutral territory. Greek at this time would have been a nation under war. Greeks people would have been proud of their territory yet scared of invasion. Athens, Argos and Thebes were in the Peloponnese area.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Two Marxist Objections to Exploitation :: Economy Economics Papers

Two Marxist Objections to Exploitation ABSTRACT: I argue that we can find in Marx two objections to exploitation: (i) an entitlement objection according to which it is wrongful because of the unjust distribution of benefits and burdens it generates; and (ii) an expressivist objection according to which it is objectionable because of the kind of social relation it is. The expressivist objection is predicated on a communitarian strand in Marx's thought, whereas the entitlement objection is grounded in a more liberal account of the wrongfulness of capitalist exploitation. I conclude by connecting my analysis to the current debate between proponents and critics of market socialism. While market socialism could be a vehicle for realizing the values associated with the entitlement objection, this is not true for the expressivist objection. Furthermore, because the entitlement objection does not depend on a thick conception of the human good, it is in accord with the liberal ideal of political neutrality whereas the expressivist objection is not. In what follows I argue that we can find in Marx's work two objections to exploitation and that distinguishing these objections helps clarify current issues facing socialist political philosophy. The first is an entitlement objection according to which exploitation is wrongful because of the unjust distribution of benefits and burdens it generates. The second is an expressivist objection according to which exploitation is wrongful because of the kind of social relation it is, viz., one in which agents view the needs, vulnerabilities, and capacities of others primarily as a means to their own private gain. (1) The expressivist objection suggests a normatively thicker, communitarian strand in Marx's thought, whereas the entitlement objection relies on a thinner, more liberal normative account. I conclude by connecting my analysis to the current debate between proponents and critics of market socialism. While market socialism could be a vehicle for realizing the values associated with t he entitlement objection, this is unlikely the case for the expressivist objection. Furthermore, because the entitlement objection does not depend on a thick conception of the human good it fits with the emphasis on political neutrality that is central to liberal thought. Let me provide some context for my account by briefly describing the place of exploitation in Marx's theory of history, the connection between the normative and explanatory roles of exploitation, and the relevance of Marx's theory of exploitation for contemporary social philosophy. For Marx exploitation is a concept of historical generality, applying not only to capitalism, but to feudal and ancient modes of production.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

The Role of Local Culture and Context in English Language Teaching

The Role of Local Culture and Context in English Language Teaching -Mabindra Regmi The Relation between Language and Culture The structuralists portrayed language as an entity that could be segmented and through learning these segments, the totality would also be learnt. This method has been tested, challenged and in many cases discarded in the world of linguistics. The conception, propagation and inevitable discontinuation of ever new methods has prompted Sowden to express â€Å"there has indeed been methodological fatigue, leading many to the pragmatic conclusion that informed eclecticism offers the best approach for the future. (Sowden, 2007, p. 304). Perhaps, eclecticism is the right trend while implementing ELT methods. One of the factors that should be considered, however, is that there seems to be a deep connection between language and culture unlike the belief of the structuralists. The concept of language teaching now is that of concentration in what the learners learn or w ant to learn rather that what is to be taught. As the classrooms get more learner-centered, it can be assumed that the attitude and the initiatives from the learners’ side will be more prominent.Since a person is shaped by ones culture and local setting, we can assume that the importance of cultural context in language teaching will grow as learning becomes more learner centered. It is in conjunction with this shift of emphasis away from teaching and towards learning, that there has appeared a growing awareness of the role played by culture in the classroom. (Sowden C, 2007, p. 304) It is not only the learners that come with their own culture in the classroom, the teachers also bring their own culture. This is particularly true if the language teacher is not from the locality.Sowden warns the teacher â€Å"to be aware not only of the cultures of their students and their environment, but also of the cultures that they themselves bring to the classroom† (Sowden, 2007, p. 305). Thus, it can be seen, however inconclusive, that culture of both the teacher and learner plays an important role in the language learning environment and they have to be addressed for effective learning to take place. This intricate mutual relationship between language and culture may be the key to unlock the language teaching methodologies of the future. Whenever we talk about anguage and its use, it is important to figure out the relation between language and culture. There are few things we need to ask ourselves in this regard. Can language exist independent of culture? Is learning a new language (English) definitive of learning the culture of native speakers of English? Who are the native speakers of English? Will the culture of the native speakers be appropriate in the setting of the language learner? Can language exist independent of culture? A language cannot exist in vacuum. It has to express some objective function when utterances are made or some text is written.Whe n we do make use of language, the production made is generally about what we know or what we have experienced. What we know and experience mostly confines within the local setting that we have grown up and where we are residing. Thus, local context becomes inseparable from the use of language. Is learning a new language (English) definitive of learning the culture of native speakers of English? When we learn a new language, we need to adopt the culture of the target language to a certain extent because the cultural aspect comes amalgamated with the target language. But what about the learners?The learners have their own set of cultural experiences and objectives of using a language. They have their own cultural amalgamation which has to be addressed during target language learning process to make it meaningful and relevant to the learners. We can assume that integration of local culture and context is inevitable while learning a target language. Who are the native speakers of Englis h? The distinction that makes a native speaker is generally very vague and often misleading. It might be important to look into the terminology if we are to explain what English is.A dictionary definition might say that native is belonging to a certain geographic location. In the case of English we must consider the fact that it is spoken in many parts of the world and more and more people are adopting it as the first language of communication. In this setting we must consider the appropriateness of calling certain speakers native and others not. Furthermore, even within the native speakers we find many varieties as in the British English, American English, Australian English, or South African English. If the English language is to be made a ruly global one, one must leave the notion of ‘native speakers’ behind. Will the culture of the native speakers be appropriate in the setting of the language learner? The culture and context of the learner and the native user of Eng lish may differ very contrastively. The traditional native speakers of English have their own cultural and contextual setting and it creeps into the language that they use. It should not be surprising thus, that the English used in non-native setting has the purpose of academia without much cultural interference.But can English have the same purpose if it were to only transfer the cultural and contextual nature of the target language? In order to make English learning a holistic experience, it is important that culture and local context are integrated so the learner has a more comprehensive grasp of the language. Different Views Regarding the Role of Culture in Language Class Different people have expressed their opinions regarding the role of culture in language class. Phyak, P has collected four such opinions from various personnel in his article integrating local culture in the EFL context of Nepal: An ignored agenda?The first view expressed by Byram and Flemming (Byram, 1997; By ram and Fleming, 1998) states that the target language culture should be taught in ELT in order to help learners to acculturate into the culture of English countries. The second view expressed by Karchu, Nelson and Canagaraja (Kachru, 1986; Kachru and Nelson, 1996; Canagarajah, 1999) opines that there is no need of teaching target culture especially in the contexts where different institutionalised varieties of English are in practice. Similarly, the third view by Kramsch and Sullivan (Kramsch and Sullivan, 1996) states plainly that ‘local culture’ in TEFL should be taught.Finally, the fourth view by Alptekin, Jenkins and Seidlhofer (Alptekin, 2005; Jenkins, 2005; Seidlhofer, 2001) says that since English is a lingua franca, it should be taught in a culture-free context. In the same article Phyak gives a fifth opinion regarding the use of culture in language class by assimilating the highlights of the above opinions where he advises the teachers to use both target and n ative cultures with priority to local culture (Phyak, P). Whatever the views of applied linguists all over the world, we cannot disregard two core realities.The first is that while learning a second language, the influence of the culture of that language is inevitable. The second fact is that the learner of second language comes equipped with the culture of the first language. If no association is made between the culture of the first language and the learning of the second one, the learning will not be as effective. Therefore, inclusion of local culture and context should be more prominent in the initial phases and gradually gear more towards the target culture so that the integration is seamless in the end and language skill transition is more comprehensive.English as an International Language Hegemony of English language is a global phenomenon and the onset of modern technology, the computer; and as the choice language of the academia will further strengthen it. Eventually, the s pread of English will probably be the root cause for disappearance of majority of world languages. Having said that, one must accommodate the fact that the use of English in international communication is increasing, and thus, it is gaining momentum as being an international language. The rise of English as an international language has created many concerns among the laymen, experts, anglophiles and chauvinists alike.The concerns can be divided into two factions. The first leads us towards convergence of all world languages into one giant English language. Because of the advent of printing, and more recently, media; languages, specifically English; are being standardized so that there is uniformity in the manner we write and speak. Many believe this to be a positive step towards world unification. There may be advantages to uniformity, but the question is; does it outweigh the disadvantages that it might bring in the form of ‘language death’ as expressed by David Cryst al or loss of identity?The other faction is made up of personnel who are asking this very question. The prominence of English might be an indicator of decline of other languages. When a language is lost, it is not only the means of communication that is lost with it. There are contextual and cultural associations with languages, and in addition; it also forms the corpora of accumulated knowledge of a community. All this will also be lost with the dying language. Moreover, there is a strong affinity of the language with the identity of a person or a community.Although English may provide with alternate identity, as shall be discussed later in this paper, the primary form of identity shall be lost, especially if the learning of English is subtractive in terms of the first language. Discrepancies aside, internationalization of English is inevitable. The question now remains is how we are going to bring about policies for other languages that are in existence. In order to understand why English is fast becoming a global language, we must try and analyze why is it important for us to learn English.There are many reasons why an individual would want to learn English. i. English may be a factor for obtaining better employment opportunities. ii. English is the medium of communication for business, recreation and competitive tournaments. iii. English is almost mandatory for learners pursuing higher academic achievements and publishing of one’s findings. iv. The knowledge of English may provide higher social standing or identity in many cases. We can see that English language empowers a person both in terms of social and material power.Thus we can see the attraction towards learning English. The choices that the language communities have is either to have subtractive learning of English and forget one’s own linguistic heritage, as is happening mostly in developing countries like Nepal; or to make the learning process additive by retaining one’s own language intact. It can be assumed that the later alternative is more acceptable. The reason for the long windedness of the explanation above brings us back to the core discussion of this paper: local context and culture in teaching or learning English.Now as we have made a huge circle from the inevitable internationalization of English to the better alternate of additive learning of English; it is time to ponder over how we are going to teach English language. English Language, Local Culture and Social Identity If we want to have mastery over English language, then I believe we must find a way to make the language practical to its learners. Just reading the literature of the language or using the language in stereotype British or American cultural setting will not hold much significance to the learner of English as a foreign language.What needs to be done is to bring about association between the language being learnt and the experience of the learners. This will provide platform f or practicality of the language being learnt. In order to understand why local context and local culture must be integrated into teaching of English language, we must also be familiar with how culture and local context plays a role in language learning. Culture and Language Reflect each other The common notion regarding the purpose of language learning has been related to communication.Because of the researches done in sociolinguistics and discourse, we should consider the fact that language is not only ‘understanding’ what the other person is expressing but it is also necessary that we understand the text at a discourse level where cultural and individual background conveys deeper meaning to the language items used. Language is not only communicating with words but we have deep rooted cultural and contextual schemata and frames which are reflected in the language that we use. Thus it is important to analyze the meaning of discourse at cultural and contextual level.The reason that we should consider the Frame and Schema theories of discourse analysis when talking about the language is that if we are not able to express or comprehend the schema created through cultural setting, only understanding the text in communication will not be able to justify the meaning that should have been understood. Only through associating and integrating the language that we are trying to learn (English) into social and cultural setting shall we be able to exploit the nuances of the expression made in a language.Englebert believes that there is a cultural variation between the learner and the language and that the â€Å"teacher hosting foreign students must come to terms with the fact that those students are immersed in a culture with which they are not familiar, and that they bring with them not only their limited knowledge of the language, but a myriad of assumptions based on generations of cultural indoctrination†. (Englebert, 2004). These assumptions based on â€Å"cultural indoctrination† are at the core of schema of the learner.Not only the culture of the target language but even the prescribed packaged methodology might create confusion in teaching English as a foreign language. In her study among the Asian students studying in New Zealand, Li found that â€Å"the interactive teaching methods adopted by New Zealand teachers are culturally incompatible with Asian students’ learning conceptualizations. The findings suggest that some teachers’ adoption of the communicative or interactive teaching approach led to Asian students’ negative learning experience in New Zealand† (Li, 2004).This shows that the cultural background and the mindset of the learner should be considered while teaching English. Subsequently, it also indicates the integration of local context and culture of the learner for smoother and more effective teaching learning experience. If the learner of English is only familiar with her o wn experience based on her own cultural and local setting, trying to incorporate a different language with a different setting will make it literally ‘foreign’. The ‘foreignness’ can be significantly eliminated if local context and culture of the learner is being used in the target language.Thus integrating the cultural and contextual setting in language learning will be important. English Language and Social Identity Bonny Norton has explained that in the current social situation, English language helps create a more powerful identity for the individuals because of the advantages associated with the proficiency of English Language (Norton, 2007). She further explains that construction of identity through learning English are complex and dynamic. The five examples that she has taken in her article all give different perspectives people have for English language based on their cultural and contextual backgrounds.If individuals from different social and ethni cal backgrounds have different concepts about how English should be taught and learnt, then we can assume that it is the experience of the learner that is influencing such perspectives. An individual is the product of the local culture and context, so we cannot ignore the importance of inclusion of local context and culture in English pedagogy. Norton recommends that we should not overlook the focus on individual account while teaching English.She further explains that the researches on language teaching and identity is fragmented and it has to be made more organized, and if English belongs to the people who speak it, expansion of English in this Global era is better (Norton, 2007). Inclusion of Local Context and Culture in ELT in Nepal Along with the gathering momentum of inclusion of local culture and context in language teaching across the world, an initiative has been started in Nepal where linguists and social activists are advocating for inclusion of local context and culture, namely, ethnic languages in mainstream education.Alongside with this initiative there are many linguists and teachers of English language who are advocating for inclusion of local context and culture in English Language Teaching. The problem that the Nepali society is facing is how to bring about the implementation of such content and context in English language. Looking at the coursebooks and educational materials, it is evident that the English teaching is heavily influenced by the culture of target language users. Although some content and stories seem that they have local context, but the exercises that follow again reflect to the target language culture.On the other hand, the teachers are also imparted trainings and education aligning with the target language culture. In this ambience, it will be difficult to implement inclusive local content and culture while teaching of English. In order to overcome this impasse, some measures can be taken so that there is a momentum towards progressive implementation of the discussed issue. First, the language policy makers and the educators of the country need to come together to make a master plan on how to develop materials, train teachers and set objectives on inclusion of local culture and context in ELT.Only when a concrete set of objectives and a clear vision of the implementational procedures have been codified, the initiative can move forward. Second, there has to be a mass drive for collection of local content in the form of stories, poems, articles and the like which also reflects local culture. The content corpus has to be exhaustive so that all the major aspects that need to be covered are covered. Agencies like Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association, NELTA, can be instrumental in taking the necessary initiatives.It is wise to include people from different academic, professional, age group, ethnic, gender, and geographical backgrounds to make the corpus comprehensive and complete. Third, the gathered content has to be carefully cataloged, edited and selected for practical use. There may be many ways by which the content can be used. The content can be an integrated one where a little of everything is included, or it might also be ethnic or locality specific where different communities make use of different relevant parts of the corpus.The fourth, which might also be the most important, is to enable the teacher of English to believe that local content and context is not only necessary but is the most effective way of teaching or learning a language. The teacher should also have autonomy to develop content from her own locality adjusting to the need of the learners there. Perhaps the most difficult part of this endeavor will be to discard the prevalent target culture based content in favor of local culture based one. But once the importance is felt and the initiative commenced, language learning process will take a meaningful and applicable turn.The learners then will not be learning English in vacuum but they can associate their own life experiences to the language being learnt. Finally, a monitoring and evaluation mechanism should be developed in order to judge how successful the implementation of the initiative has been. The monitoring and evaluating body can also make necessary changes in the whole process as the problems arise. Association and Comprehension through Local Context in ELT If there is association between the local context and culture, and English Language teaching; the learners might benefit in many different ways.As Lengkanawati states â€Å"we can conclude that the choice and the intensity of using language learning strategies is influenced by many factors, one of which is the students’ cultural background† (Lengkanawati, 2004), the association of local culture and English language teaching might help the learner build better learning strategies. It will lead the learner to grasp deeper meaning of the target languag e and use it efficiently and productively. Moreover, the differences that lie within the variations of English will make the learner appreciate that context and culture are essential for language learning.All this will lead to a global culture where one retains her native culture while learning that of the target language and thus of the whole world. We have discussed previously about the nature of association between language and culture. In addition, we also discussed about the emergence of English as an international language and the advantages of learning it. Then we went on to how local context and culture can be integrated into teaching English in Nepal. Now, we shall focus on advantages there might be in integrating local context and culture while teaching English in three different stages.The association of local context and culture can be done in three levels: using local context and culture while learning English, Using the context and culture of the target language, and i ntegrating the two cultures to create multicultural or global comprehension. 1. Using the local cultural and contextual setting while learning English. Using local context and culture will enable the learners to grasp the deeper meaning of English because they can associate the cultural and contextual meaning that they are familiar with.In Barfield and Uzarski’s findings, â€Å"the classroom observation showed that students in pair and group works were more interactive when they had to discuss on their local cultures than when they had to discuss on different stories or texts which they were not familiar with. † Contextualization will further enable the learner to be proficient in the language at a faster pace. The learner will understand how a different language is not very different from one’s own. This methodology needs to be applied on the learners at least at the beginning.The learners must be given ample opportunities to interact in the target language. Th is is only possible if the content that is being used is related to local context or culture. If target language culture is given as a topic of interaction, the learners may have nothing to contribute and will be less willing to proceed further. 2. Using the culture and context of the target language The users of the target language are varied. There is no single context or culture that defines a language like English. Therefore, it will be difficult to identify the target culture when we talk of English.This also indicates that even within the same language there is influence of local context and culture. This will make the learner understand that the language is not entirely free from the culture and context of a community. For example, we can take metro English that the Londoners’ use. It is very different from the traditional Standard or BBC English that we learn in Nepal or the other parts of the world. Sometimes there is a discrepancy in lexical meanings and pronunciati on too. A pavement for the British might be sidewalk for the Americans.A mate is a friend in Australia and spouse in England. The fact that even among the native speakers of English in different countries the linguistic items have different meanings will enable the learners to realize that culture or local context is the key factor in using and understanding a language. It will also give an insight that language is culture and context specific and not medium specific. To clarify this statement we can safely assume that the people coming from same cultural and contextual setting will share more meanings than people from cross-culture sharing the same language.This demarcation will be of vital importance because the learner will be able to comprehend that to understand a person is not only understanding the language but understanding the local context and culture as well. It will further inspire the learners of English to be familiar with different cultural settings of the people that use the language. This kind of interpretation of language should be carried out at intermediate and advanced levels where the learners have been made familiar of the inclusion of their own cultural and local contexts while learning English. 3.The emergence of a Global culture When more and more people start becoming familiar with the local culture and context of more and more places, then a common, integrated culture will emerge. This is the Global phenomenon that has been extensively discussed in every sphere of modern human civilization. This global concept of the language and cross-cultural integration should be the ultimate outcome of language learning. When we are able to identify issues of global importance and contribute to it in a local way, then we will be adherent to the post-modernist maxim of â€Å"think globally, act locally†.This is a concept that might be difficult to understand for many learners. There is also a paradox of going local to harbor a global outlo ok. This in turn complicates the nature of language that we use in the modern world. The learners of languages, and specifically of dominant language like English, should consider the integration of local context and language. Considering the complexity of the process and inputs, learners of the tertiary level of English should be taught at this comprehensive level. Assimilation of Various Cultures for Global InterpretationBarfield and Uzarski have a very interesting notion regarding language integration when they opine that even if an indigenous language is lost, which is happening at an alarming rate all over the world, through integration it can be preserved within another language like English. Interestingly, despite the loss or future loss of an indigenous language, the â€Å"roots† of that indigenous culture can be preserved through the learning of another language, such as English. (Barfield and Uzarski, 2009) This is one notion that can be construed as positive aspect of assimilation of local culture into a Global one.Even though we might have strong opinions regarding local languages and cultures that we have inherited, and feel strongly towards dominance and ultimate displacement that a language like English will do to other local languages, the only way to actually save a part of the culture and local form of language might be through English. In order to achieve this, it would be important to integrate local context and culture in teaching languages like English. On the other hand, because English is fast becoming the lingua franca of the world, there should also be a global ownership of the language.If we consider only one of the cultures of the native speakers then the globalization of the language will not be possible. In order to truly make a language like English a global one, and for all the cultures to feel that they are also a part of this global phenomenon, integration of local culture and context is important. So, at the end, every individual language community can feel the ownership of global English through integration and assimilation. Contrastively, the cultural and local contexts of societies that use English language are varied and it would be impossible to integrate everything about all the cultures.To make it comprehensible in the global arena, we should find out commonalities that exist in all the cultures and localities across the world and try to establish a common contextual and cultural condition for the language to evolve into a Global Language. Such understanding and cohesion will provide â€Å"the abilities to perform effectively and appropriately with members of another language-culture background on their terms† (Barfield and Uzarski, 2009). Conclusion This article has assumed certain developments in English language based on current global trends.It has assumed that English is fast becoming a global language and it will become more so in the future. It has also assumed that the local languages will decline and decay in the face of English as their adversary. Considering these base assumptions, the article has provided insight into understanding the importance of English language and equal importance of using local context and culture while teaching English. In conclusion, we can reaffirm the essence of the whole discussion in the following manner: first, we need to understand that we use English as a method of communication and this language is fast becoming a global anguage. Because we use it in our communication, the language cannot be excluded from the local context and culture because they are what we are likely to be communicating about. There may be differences in opinions regarding how or if local context and culture should be used in teaching English, but it is essential that we integrate local context and culture. Second, use of local context and culture in teaching English will depend on the nature of the local setting. Same system may not be applicab le in all communities.Therefore, how the integration is to be done should be tailored to suit the needs of a particular community or a country. In case of Nepal, this can initiate with development of content corpus based on multilingual communities existing in the country and making a broad plan on what and how to integrate the content thus collected and selected. Third, the use of local context and culture can be done following a procedural format where local context and culture can be given more priority in the earlier stages of learning English language.Slowly, learning of the culture and context of the target language is to be achieved for more comprehensive understanding. When integration is done among various communities and language groups, then English will emerge as a true global language with global ownership. Finally, we should also consider the possibility that many present languages of the world might one day die. And the only possibility of its context and culture to b e passed on may be through integration into a dominant language like English. All these expositions make the use of local context and culture in English Language Teaching a necessity.