Thursday, September 19, 2019

Explain the construction of the service package offered by the Lewis :: Business and Management Studies

Explain the construction of the service package offered by the Lewis Partnership at the Swan Hotel or the Moat House Hotel. 1. Define the concept of â€Å"service package† and explain the construction of the service package offered by the Lewis Partnership at the Swan Hotel or the Moat House Hotel. The Service Package is defined as: â€Å" a bundle of goods and services that is provided in some environment † 1 The Service Package is composed of the following four elements: Supporting facility, facilitating goods, explicit services and implicit services. It’s quite difficult for the service managers to identify their product. This is partly due to the intangible nature of services, but what really has a huge influence on the total service experience is the presence of the customer in the process. The service manager has to offer a total experience to the customer which is compatible with the desired service package. The four features of the service package are the base of the customer perception of the service. The Lewis Partnership, as a service company, take into account and manage all the parts of the service package. - Supporting facility: are the physical resources which a service needs to can be offered. For example a building for a restaurant, a swimming pool, etc.2 The main supporting facilities of the Moat House is the building with it’s rustic furniture. It is located in a accessible rural landscape not fare away from Stafford. With the collaboration of Lloyds TSB Corporate, Mark Lewis the General Manager of the Moat House has been able to realise big invests in the supporting facilities of the partnership. The eager of perfection and development leads to a constant evolution and improvement of the supporting facilities. - Facilitating goods: the material which the buyer purchases or or consumes, or the items provided by the customer. For example towels, skis, shampoo, etc. 3 For the Moat House the facilitating goods are part of his resources. Quality is the most important aspect of the culture of this family business, so we can find a long list of suppliers which provide excellent selection of products, like B&S Dairies, Cottage Flowers, Chartley Coffee, etc. - Explicit services: the benefits that are quickly noticed by the senses that are based on the intrinsic or essential features of the service. Examples are the relaxed feeling after a massage, the improved sound of a car after tuning, etc.4 Due to the policy of the partnership, we can find a intensive control of the Explicit Services which are the accommodation and feeding of their customers. The culture of this company is â€Å" Only the best is good enough† but his

Progressivism Essay -- History Essays Progressive Era

Progressivism The age of progressivism was a time where the middle and lower classes joined together to attack the upper crust elites. During the populist movement there was more of a separation of classes; the farmers blamed just about everyone, especially the more cosmopolitan population, for their economic loss at the end of the nineteenth century. Towards the beginning of the twentieth century however, the rich kept getting richer and the poor got poorer. When the Industrial Revolution was at its peak, the railroad owners and developers saw a large increase in their revenue. The gap between the middle class and the upper class very quickly became much larger. Small town community leaders, who were role models for their town, now had to answer to big business, starting the status revolution. The lower and middle classes were worried because democracy is now being threatened by the monopolies that controlled the economic swing of the United States. The classes fought back by t rying to win over some of the â€Å"outsiders† of the country, ie immigrants, Jews, different races. The goal was to win them over by cleaning up some of the slum areas where these populations lived. Religion played a role in which slums would be cleaned up. The Roman Catholics that emigrated from Ireland had the stereotype of being alcoholics; the Jews from Eastern Europe had the stereotype of being money grubbers. The majority of the American population, white, protestant, workers, had a hard time trusting the outsiders of the country. Many different historians compare and contrast the benefits of this time and the repercussions it had left. For some groups, it was a pivotal moment in history for them but for others, laws were mad... ... Different discriminated groups came together to forge a bond to get their voice heard in America; the middle and lower â€Å"wasp† classes teamed with the immigrants against big business and prevailed. These coalitions, helped shape the social scene for the beginning of the twentieth century. The progressive era left its mark in the United States history. Works Cited Paula Baker, â€Å"The Domestication of Politics: Women and American Political Society, 1780-1920,† The American Historical Review 89 (1984): 620-647. Peter Filene, â€Å"An Obituary For ‘The Progressive Movement’,† American Quarterly 22 (1970): 20-34. Richard Hofstadter, The Age of Reform (New York: Vintage Books, 1955): 16-18. Richard McCormick, â€Å"The Discovery That Big Business Corrupts Politics: A Reappraisal of the Origins of Progressivism,† The American Historical Review 86 (1981): 247-274.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Antigone: Gender Conflict Essay -- essays research papers

In the play Antigone there are many references that link to the oppression of women. Creon made many convictions insulting womenkind. His convictions seemed true to a large population of men. I believe the majority of men, in the ancient Greek times believed in the undeniable domination of women. The start of the Greeks began around 2000 B.C. with the Mycenaeans. They inhabited the Greek peninsula. (Perry 40)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"If we transgress . . . we† (Beatty 61) Ismene claimed it was an outrageous thought to stand up to a man. Her view of the inferiority to men came from the many laws restricting the lives of women. Women lived most of their lives in their homes. They were allowed on the streets with the company of a man, or for the reason of a funeral or religious festival. Only the poverty stricken women were allowed to work outside the home. They were not allowed to own property. They lived their lives under the control of a male figure. (Kishlansky 75)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Women in marriage did not gain much pleasure. They married between the ages of twelve and eighteen. (Kagan 53) The marriage was arranged by their fathers. Marriages were conducted with these words, â€Å"I give this women for the procreation of legitimate children...I accept...And I give a certain amount as dowry...I am content.† Clearly the purpose of the women was to bear children. The role of the husband is vague and seems as though he doesn’t play much of a role in the household. Contact with other men was not allowed for the wives, yet for the husband it was common to pursue adulterous relationships. An Athenian male stated â€Å"Hetairai we have for our pleasure, mistresses for the refreshment of our bodies, but wives to bear us legitimate children and to look after the house faithfully.† (Spielvogel 75) â€Å"Kill your own son’s bride?...Oh, there are other fields for him to plough.† Was Creons answer to Ismene concerning his son’s marriage to Antigone. (Beatty 69)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Prostitution prospered during these times. There were two classes of prostitution. There were the slaves run by citizens and the refined courtesans. (Spielvogel 100) Male prostitutes were   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  not citizens but foreigners. Female citizens were prostitutes, yet male prostitutes were not allowed. (Spielvogel 92)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   ... ...te creatures. . . child.† (Kishlansky 76) In many other plays the main characters were women. This may suggest women played a more profound role in society than portrayed by law.(Kagan 53)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Even some of the wisest men were blinded to the rights of women. When Socrates was sentenced to death he had sent the women away. After he swallowed poison many of the male watchers began crying. â€Å"Really my friends, what a way to behave! Why, that was my main reason for sending away the women, to prevent this sort of disturbance;† (Spielvogel 96) Creon agreed that women lacked control of their emotions â€Å"Despicable coward! No more will than a woman!† (Beatty 72)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The women of ancient Greek times suffered many hardships. They were only considered citizens for the sake of marriage and other duties to help men. They were considered evil and better off invisible. There were a few supporters of women. In many plays women were depicted as strong willed people. This leaves the likelihood that women were perceived as more than servers. It astonishes me to see some of these traditional views are still held, but luckily by a very small population. Antigone: Gender Conflict Essay -- essays research papers In the play Antigone there are many references that link to the oppression of women. Creon made many convictions insulting womenkind. His convictions seemed true to a large population of men. I believe the majority of men, in the ancient Greek times believed in the undeniable domination of women. The start of the Greeks began around 2000 B.C. with the Mycenaeans. They inhabited the Greek peninsula. (Perry 40)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"If we transgress . . . we† (Beatty 61) Ismene claimed it was an outrageous thought to stand up to a man. Her view of the inferiority to men came from the many laws restricting the lives of women. Women lived most of their lives in their homes. They were allowed on the streets with the company of a man, or for the reason of a funeral or religious festival. Only the poverty stricken women were allowed to work outside the home. They were not allowed to own property. They lived their lives under the control of a male figure. (Kishlansky 75)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Women in marriage did not gain much pleasure. They married between the ages of twelve and eighteen. (Kagan 53) The marriage was arranged by their fathers. Marriages were conducted with these words, â€Å"I give this women for the procreation of legitimate children...I accept...And I give a certain amount as dowry...I am content.† Clearly the purpose of the women was to bear children. The role of the husband is vague and seems as though he doesn’t play much of a role in the household. Contact with other men was not allowed for the wives, yet for the husband it was common to pursue adulterous relationships. An Athenian male stated â€Å"Hetairai we have for our pleasure, mistresses for the refreshment of our bodies, but wives to bear us legitimate children and to look after the house faithfully.† (Spielvogel 75) â€Å"Kill your own son’s bride?...Oh, there are other fields for him to plough.† Was Creons answer to Ismene concerning his son’s marriage to Antigone. (Beatty 69)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Prostitution prospered during these times. There were two classes of prostitution. There were the slaves run by citizens and the refined courtesans. (Spielvogel 100) Male prostitutes were   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  not citizens but foreigners. Female citizens were prostitutes, yet male prostitutes were not allowed. (Spielvogel 92)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   ... ...te creatures. . . child.† (Kishlansky 76) In many other plays the main characters were women. This may suggest women played a more profound role in society than portrayed by law.(Kagan 53)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Even some of the wisest men were blinded to the rights of women. When Socrates was sentenced to death he had sent the women away. After he swallowed poison many of the male watchers began crying. â€Å"Really my friends, what a way to behave! Why, that was my main reason for sending away the women, to prevent this sort of disturbance;† (Spielvogel 96) Creon agreed that women lacked control of their emotions â€Å"Despicable coward! No more will than a woman!† (Beatty 72)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The women of ancient Greek times suffered many hardships. They were only considered citizens for the sake of marriage and other duties to help men. They were considered evil and better off invisible. There were a few supporters of women. In many plays women were depicted as strong willed people. This leaves the likelihood that women were perceived as more than servers. It astonishes me to see some of these traditional views are still held, but luckily by a very small population.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

The Twilight Saga 4: Breaking Dawn 37. Contrivances

Aro did not rejoin his anxious guard waiting on the north side of the clearing; instead, he waved them forward. Edward started backing up immediately, pulling my arm and Emmett's. We hurried backward, keeping our eyes on the advancing threat. Jacob retreated slowest, the fur on his shoulders standing straight up as he bared his fangs at Aro. Renesmee grabbed the end of his tail as we retreated; she held it like a leash, forcing him to stay with us. We reached our family at the same time that the dark cloaks surrounded Aro again. Now there were only fifty yards between them and us – a distance any of us could leap in just a fraction of a second. Caius began arguing with Aro at once. â€Å"How can you abide this infamy? Why do we stand here impotently in the face of such an outrageous crime, covered by such a ridiculous deception?† He held his arms rigidly at his sides, his hands curled into claws. I wondered why he did not just touch Aro to share his opinion. Were we seeing a division in their ranks already? Could we be that lucky? â€Å"Because it's all true,† Aro told him calmly. â€Å"Every word of it. See how many witnesses stand ready to give evidence that they have seen this miraculous child grow and mature in just the short time they've known her. That they have felt the warmth of the blood that pulses in her veins.† Aro's gesture swept from Amun on one side across to Siobhan on the other. Caius reacted oddly to Aro's soothing words, starting ever so slightly at the mention of witnesses. The anger drained from his features, replaced by a cold calculation. He glanced at the Volturi witnesses with an expression that looked vaguely†¦ nervous. I glanced at the angry mob, too, and saw immediately that the description no longer applied. The frenzy for action had turned to confusion. Whispered conversations seethed through the crowd as they tried to make sense of what had happened. Caius was frowning, deep in thought. His speculative expression stoked the flames of my smoldering anger at the same time that it worried me. What if the guard acted again on some invisible signal, as they had in their march? Anxiously, I inspected my shield; it felt just as impenetrable as before. I flexed it now into a low, wide dome that arced over our company. I could feel the sharp plumes of light where my family and friends stood – each one an individual flavor that I thought I would be able to recognize with practice. I already knew Edward's – his was the very brightest of them all. The extra empty space around the shining spots bothered me; there was no physical barrier to the shield, and if any of the talented Volturi got under it, it would protect no one but me. I felt my forehead crease as I pulled the elastic armor very carefully closer. Carlisle was the farthest forward; I sucked the shield back inch by inch, trying to wrap it as exactly to his body as I could. My shield seemed to want to cooperate. It hugged his shape; when Carlisle shifted to the side to stand nearer to Tanya, the elastic stretched with him, drawn to his spark. Fascinated, I tugged in more threads of the fabric, pulling it around each glimmering shape that was a friend or ally. The shield clung to them willingly, moving as they moved. Only a second had passed; Caius was still deliberating. â€Å"The werewolves,† he murmured at last. With sudden panic, 1 realized that most of the werewolves were unprotected. I was about to reach out to them when I realize that, strangely, I could still feel their sparks. Curious, I drew the shield tighter in, until Amun and Kebi – the farthest edge of our group – were outside with the wolves. Once they were on the other side, their lights vanished. They no longer existed to that new sense. But the wolves were still bright flames – or rather, half of them were. Hmm†¦ I edged outward again, and as soon as Sam was under cover, all the wolves were brilliant sparks again. Their minds must have been more interconnected than I'd imagined. If the Alpha was inside my shield, the rest of their minds were every bit as protected as his. â€Å"Ah, brother†¦,† Aro answered Caius's statement with a pained look. â€Å"Will you defend that alliance, too, Aro?† Caius demanded. â€Å"The Children of the Moon have been our bitter enemies from the dawn of time. We have hunted them to near extinction in Europe and Asia. Yet Carlisle encourages a familiar relationship with this enormous infestation – no doubt in an attempt to overthrow us. The better to protect his warped lifestyle.† Edward cleared his throat loudly and Caius glared at him. Aro placed one thin, delicate hand over his own face as if he was embarrassed for the other ancient. â€Å"Caius, it's the middle of the day,† Edward pointed out. He gestured to Jacob. â€Å"These are not Children of the Moon, clearly. They bear no relation to your enemies on the other side of the world.† â€Å"You breed mutants here,† Caius spit back at him. Edward's jaw clenched and unclenched, then he answered evenly, â€Å"They aren't even werewolves. Aro can tell you all about it if you don't believe me.† Not werewolves? I shot a mystified look at Jacob. He lifted his huge shoulders and let them drop – a shrug. He didn't know what Edward was talking about, either. â€Å"Dear Caius, I would have warned you not to press this point if you had told me your thoughts,† Aro murmured. â€Å"Though the creatures think of themselves as werewolves, they are not. The more accurate name for them would be shape-shifters. The choice of a wolf form was purely chance. It could have been a bear or a hawk or a panther when the first change was made. These creatures truly have nothing to do with the Children of the Moon. They have merely inherited this skill from their fathers. It's genetic – they do not continue their species by infecting others the way true werewolves do.† Caius glared at Aro with irritation and something more – an accusation of betrayal, maybe. â€Å"They know our secret,† he said flatly. Edward looked about to answer this accusation, but Aro spoke faster. â€Å"They are creatures of our supernatural world, brother. Perhaps even more dependent upon secrecy than we are; they can hardly expose us. Carefully, Caius. Specious allegations get us nowhere.† Caius took a deep breath and nodded. They exchanged a long, significant glance. I thought I understood the instruction behind Aro's careful wording. False charges weren't helping convince the watching witnesses on either side; Aro was cautioning Caius to move on to the next strategy. I wondered if the reason behind the apparent strain between the two ancients – Caius's unwillingness to share his thoughts with a touch – was that Caius didn't care about the show as much as Aro did. If the coming slaughter was so much more essential to Caius than an untarnished reputation. â€Å"I want to talk to the informant,† Caius announced abruptly, and turned his glare on Irina. Irina wasn't paying attention to Caius and Aro's conversation; her face was twisted in agony, her eyes locked on her sisters, lined up to die. It was clear on her face that she knew now her accusation had been totally false. â€Å"Irina,† Caius barked, unhappy to have to address her. She looked up, startled and instantly afraid. Caius snapped his fingers. Hesitantly, she moved from the fringes of the Volturi formation to stand in front of Caius again. â€Å"So you appear to have been quite mistaken in your allegations,† Caius began. Tanya and Kate leaned forward anxiously. â€Å"I'm sorry,† Irina whispered. â€Å"I should have made sure of what I was seeing. But I had no idea___† She gestured helplessly in our direction. â€Å"Dear Caius, could you expect her to have guessed in an instant something so strange and impossible?† Aro asked. â€Å"Any of us would have made the same assumption.† Caius flicked his fingers at Aro to silence him. â€Å"We all know you made a mistake,† he said brusquely. â€Å"I meant to speak of your motivations.† Irina waited nervously for him to continue, and then repeated, â€Å"My motivations?† â€Å"Yes, for coming to spy on them in the first place.† Irina flinched at the word spy. â€Å"You were unhappy with the Cullens, were you not?† She turned her miserable eyes to Carlisle's face. â€Å"I was,† she admitted. â€Å"Because†¦ ?† Caius prompted. â€Å"Because the werewolves killed my friend,† she whispered. â€Å"And the Cullens wouldn't stand aside to let me avenge him.† â€Å"The shape-shifters,† Aro corrected quietly. â€Å"So the Cullens sided with the shape-shifters against our own kind – against the friend of a friend, even,† Caius summarized. I heard Edward make a disgusted sound under his breath. Caius was ticking down his list, looking for an accusation that would stick. Irina's shoulders stiffened. â€Å"That's how I saw it.† Caius waited again and then prompted, â€Å"If you'd like to make a formal complaint against the shape-shifters – and the Cullens for supporting their actions – now would be the time.† He smiled a tiny cruel smile, waiting for Irina to give him his next excuse. Maybe Caius didn't understand real families – relationships based on love rather than just the love of power. Maybe he overestimated the potency of vengeance. Irina's jaw jerked up, her shoulders squared. â€Å"No, I have no complaint against the wolves, or the Cullens. You came here today to destroy an immortal child. No immortal child exists. This was my mistake, and I take full responsibility for it. But the Cullens are innocent, and you have no reason to still be here. I'm so sorry,† she said to us, and then she turned her face toward the Volturi witnesses. â€Å"There was no crime. There's no valid reason for you to continue here.† Caius raised his hand as she spoke, and in it was a strange metal object, carved and ornate. This was a signal. The response was so fast that we all stared in stunned disbelief while it happened. Before there was time to react, it was over. Three of the Volturi soldiers leaped forward, and Irina was completely obscured by their gray cloaks. In the same instant, a horrible metallic screeching ripped through the clearing. Caius slithered into the center of the gray melee, and the shocking squealing sound exploded into a startling upward shower of sparks and tongues of flame. The soldiers leaped back from the sudden inferno, immediately retaking their places in the guard's perfectly straight line. Caius stood alone beside the blazing remains of Irina, the metal object in his hand still throwing a thick jet of flame into the pyre. With a small clicking sound, the fire shooting from Caius's hand disappeared. A gasp rippled through the mass of witnesses behind the Volturi. We were too aghast to make any noise at all. It was one thing to know that death was coming with fierce, unstoppable speed; it was another thing to watch it happen. Caius smiled coldly. â€Å"Now she has taken full responsibility for her actions.† His eyes flashed to our front line, touching swiftly on Tanya's and Kate's frozen forms. In that second I understood that Caius had never underestimated the ties of a true family. This was the ploy. He had not wanted Irina's complaint; he had wanted her defiance. His excuse to destroy her, to ignite the violence that filled the air like a thick, combustible mist. He had thrown a match. The strained peace of this summit already teetered more precariously than an elephant on a tightrope. Once the fight began, there would be no way to stop it. It would only escalate until one side was entirely extinct. Our side. Caius knew this. So did Edward. â€Å"Stop them!† Edward cried out, jumping to grab Tanya's arm as she lurched forward toward the smiling Caius with a maddened cry of pure rage. She couldn't shake Edward off before Carlisle had his arms locked around her waist. â€Å"It's too late to help her,† he reasoned urgently as she struggled. â€Å"Don't give him what he wants!† Kate was harder to contain. Shrieking wordlessly like Tanya, she broke into the first stride of the attack that would end with everyone's death. Rosalie was closest to her, but before Rose could clinch her in a headlock, Kate shocked her so violently that Rose crumpled to the ground. Emmett caught Kate's arm and threw her down, then staggered back, his knees giving out. Kate rolled to her feet, and it looked like no one could stop her. Garrett flung himself at her, knocking her to the ground again. He bound his arms around hers, locking his hands around his own wrists. I saw his body spasm as she shocked him. His eyes rolled back in his head, but his hold did not break. â€Å"Zafrina,† Edward shouted. Kate's eyes went blank and her screams turned to moans. Tanya stopped struggling. â€Å"Give me my sight back,† Tanya hissed. Desperately, but with all the delicacy I could manage, I pulled my shield even tighter against the sparks of my friends, peeling it back carefully from Kate while trying to keep it around Garrett, making it a thin skin between them. And then Garrett was in command of himself again, holding Kate to the snow. â€Å"If I let you up, will you knock me down again, Katie?† he whispered. She snarled in response, still thrashing blindly. â€Å"Listen to me, Tanya, Kate,† Carlisle said in a low but intense whisper. â€Å"Vengeance doesn't help her now. Irina wouldn't want you to waste your lives this way. Think about what you're doing. If you attack them, we all die.† Tanya's shoulders hunched with grief, and she leaned into Carlisle for support. Kate was finally still. Carlisle and Garrett continued to console the sisters with words too urgent to sound like comfort. And my attention returned to the weight of the stares that pressed down on our moment of chaos. From the corners of my eyes, I could see that Edward and everyone else besides Carlisle and Garrett were on their guard again as well. The heaviest glare came from Caius, staring with enraged disbelief at Kate and Garrett in the snow. Aro was watching the same two, incredulity the strongest emotion on his face. He knew what Kate could do. He had felt her potency through Edward's memories. Did he understand what was happening now – did he see that my shield had grown in strength and subtlety far beyond what Edward knew me to be capable of? Or did he think Garrett had learned his own form of immunity? The Volturi guard no longer stood at disciplined attention – they were crouched forward, waiting to spring the counterstrike the moment we attacked. Behind them, forty-three witnesses watched with very different expressions than the ones they'd worn entering the clearing. Confusion had turned to suspicion. The lightning-fast destruction of Irina had shaken them all. What had been her crime? Without the immediate attack that Caius had counted on to distract from his rash act, the Volturi witnesses were left questioning exactly what was going on here. Aro glanced back swiftly while I watched, his face betraying him with one flash of vexation. His need for an audience had backfired badly. I heard Stefan and Vladimir murmur to each other in quiet glee at Aro's discomfort. Aro was obviously concerned with keeping his white hat, as the Romanians had put it. But I didn't believe that the Volturi would leave us in peace just to save their reputation. After they finished with us, surely they would slaughter their witnesses for that purpose. I felt a strange, sudden pity for the mass of the strangers the Volturi had brought to watch us die. Demetri would hunt them until they were extinct, too. For Jacob and Renesmee, for Alice and Jasper, for Alistair, and for these strangers who had not known what today would cost them, Demetri had to die. Aro touched Caius's shoulder lightly. â€Å"Irina has been punished for bearing false witness against this child.† So that was to be their excuse. He went on. â€Å"Perhaps we should return to the matter at hand?† Caius straightened, and his expression hardened into unreadability. He stared forward, seeing nothing. His face reminded me, oddly, of a person who'd just learned he'd been demoted. Aro drifted forward, Renata, Felix, and Demetri automatically moving with him. â€Å"Just to be thorough,† he said, â€Å"I'd like to speak with a few of your witnesses. Procedure, you know.† He waved a hand dismissively. Two things happened at once. Caius's eyes focused on Aro, and the tiny cruel smile came back. And Edward hissed, his hands balling up in fists so tight it looked like the bones in his knuckles would split through his diamond-hard skin. I was desperate to ask him what was going on, but Aro was close enough to hear even the quietest breath. I saw Carlisle glance anxiously at Edward's face, and then his own face hardened. While Caius had blundered through useless accusations and injudicious attempts to trigger the fight, Aro must have been coming up with a more effective strategy. Aro ghosted across the snow to the far western end of our line, stopping about ten yards from Amun and Kebi. The nearby wolves bristled angrily but held their positions. â€Å"Ah, Amun, my southern neighbor!† Aro said warmly. â€Å"It has been so long since you've visited me.† Amun was motionless with anxiety, Kebi a statue at his side. â€Å"Time means little; I never notice its passing,† Amun said through unmoving lips. â€Å"So true,† Aro agreed. â€Å"But maybe you had another reason to stay away?† Amun said nothing. â€Å"It can be terribly time-consuming to organize newcomers into a coven. I know that well! I'm grateful I have others to deal with the tedium. I'm glad your new additions have fit in so well. I would have loved to have been introduced. I'm sure you were meaning to come to see me soon.† â€Å"Of course,† Amun said, his tone so emotionless that it was impossible to tell if there was any fear or sarcasm in his assent. â€Å"Oh well, we're all together now! Isn't it lovely?† Amun nodded, his face blank. â€Å"But the reason for your presence here is not as pleasant, unfortunately. Carlisle called on you to witness?† â€Å"Yes.† â€Å"And what did you witness for him?† Amun spoke with the same cold lack of emotion. â€Å"I've observed the child in question. It was evident almost immediately that she was not an immortal child – â€Å" â€Å"Perhaps we should define our terminology,† Aro interrupted, â€Å"now that there seem to be new classifications. By immortal child, you mean of course a human child who had been bitten and thus transformed into a vampire.† â€Å"Yes, that's what I meant.† â€Å"What else did you observe about the child?† â€Å"The same things that you surely saw in Edward's mind. That the child is his biologically. That she grows. That she learns.† â€Å"Yes, yes,† Aro said, a hint of impatience in his otherwise amiable tone. â€Å"But specifically in your few weeks here, what did you see?† Amun's brow furrowed. â€Å"That she grows†¦ quickly.† Aro smiled. â€Å"And do you believe that she should be allowed to live?† A hiss escaped my lips, and I was not alone. Half the vampires in our line echoed my protest. The sound was a low sizzle of fury hanging in the air. Across the meadow, a few of the Volturi witnesses made the same noise. Edward stepped back and wrapped a restraining hand around my wrist. Aro did not turn to the noise, but Amun glanced around uneasily. â€Å"I did not come to make judgments,† he equivocated. Aro laughed lightly. â€Å"Just your opinion.† Amun's chin lifted. â€Å"I see no danger in the child. She learns even more swiftly than she grows.† Aro nodded, considering. After a moment, he turned away. â€Å"Aro?† Amun called. Aro whirled back. â€Å"Yes, friend?† â€Å"I gave my witness. I have no more business here. My mate and I would like to take our leave now.† Aro smiled warmly. â€Å"Of course. I'm so glad we were able to chat for a bit. And I'm sure we'll see each other again soon.† Amun's lips were a tight line as he inclined his head once, acknowledging the barely concealed threat. He touched Kebi's arm, and then the two of them ran quickly to the southern edge of the meadow and disappeared into the trees. I knew they wouldn't stop running for a very long time. Aro was gliding back along the length of our line to the east, his guards hovering tensely. He stopped when he was in front of Siobhan's massive form. â€Å"Hello, dear Siobhan. You are as lovely as ever.† Siobhan inclined her head, waiting. â€Å"And you?† he asked. â€Å"Would you answer my questions the same way Amun has?† â€Å"I would,† Siobhan said. â€Å"But I would perhaps add a little more. Renesmee understands the limitations. She's no danger to humans – she blends in better than we do. She poses no threat of exposure.† â€Å"Can you think of none?† Aro asked soberly. Edward growled, a low ripping sound deep in his throat. Caius's cloudy crimson eyes brightened. Renata reached out protectively toward her master. And Garrett freed Kate to take a step forward, ignoring Kate's hand as she tried to caution him this time. Siobhan answered slowly, â€Å"I don't think I follow you.† Aro drifted lightly back, casually, but toward the rest of his guard. Renata, Felix, and Demetri were closer than his shadow. â€Å"There is no broken law,† Aro said in a placating voice, but every one of us could hear that a qualification was coming. I fought back the rage that tried to claw its way up my throat and snarl out my defiance. I hurled the fury into my shield, thickening it, making sure everyone was protected. â€Å"No broken law,† Aro repeated. â€Å"However, does it follow then that there is no danger? No.† He shook his head gently. â€Å"That is a separate issue.† The only response was the tightening of already stretched nerves, and Maggie, at the fringes of our band of fighters, shaking her head with slow anger. Aro paced thoughtfully, looking as if he floated rather than touched the ground with his feet. I noticed every pass took him closer to the protection of his guard. â€Å"She is unique†¦ utterly, impossibly unique. Such a waste it would be, to destroy something so lovely. Especially when we could learn so much .. .† He sighed, as if unwilling to go on. â€Å"But there is danger, danger that cannot simply be ignored.† No one answered his assertion. It was dead silent as he continued in a monologue that sounded as if he spoke it for himself only. â€Å"How ironic it is that as the humans advance, as their faith in science grows and controls their world, the more free we are from discovery. Yet, as we become ever more uninhibited by their disbelief in the supernatural, they become strong enough in their technologies that, if they wished, they could actually pose a threat to us, even destroy some of us. â€Å"For thousands and thousands of years, our secrecy has been more a matter of convenience, of ease, than of actual safety. This last raw, angry century has given birth to weapons of such power that they endanger even immortals. Now our status as mere myth in truth protects us from these weak creatures we hunt. â€Å"Thisamazingchild† – he lifted his hand palm down as if to rest it on Renesmee, though he was forty yards from her now, almost within the Volturi formation again – â€Å"if we could but know her potential – know with absolute certainty that she could always remain shrouded within the obscurity that protects us. But we know nothing of what she will become! Her own parents are plagued by fears of her future. We cannot know what she will grow to be.† He paused, looking first at our witnesses, and then, meaningfully, at his own. His voice gave a good imitation of sounding torn by his words. Still looking at his own witnesses, he spoke again. â€Å"Only the known is safe. Only the known is tolerable. The unknown is†¦ a vulnerability.† Caius's smile widened viciously. â€Å"You're reaching, Aro,† Carlisle said in a bleak voice. â€Å"Peace, friend.† Aro smiled, his face as kind, his voice as gentle, as ever. â€Å"Let us not be hasty. Let us look at this from every side.† â€Å"May I offer a side to be considered?† Garrett petitioned in a level tone, taking another step forward. â€Å"Nomad,† Aro said, nodding in permission. Garrett's chin lifted. His eyes focused on the huddled mass at the end of the meadow, and he spoke directly to the Volturi witnesses. â€Å"I came here at Carlisle's request, as the others, to witness,† he said. â€Å"That is certainly no longer necessary, with regard to the child. We all see what she is. â€Å"I stayed to witness something else. You.† He jabbed his finger toward the wary vampires. â€Å"Two of you I know – Makenna, Charles – and I can see that many of you others are also wanderers, roamers like myself. Answering to none. Think carefully on what I tell you now. ‘These ancient ones did not come here for justice as they told you. We suspected as much, and now it has been proved. They came, misled, but with a valid excuse for their action. Witness now as they seek flimsy excuses to continue their true mission. Witness them struggle to find a justification for their true purpose – to destroy this family here.† He gestured toward Carlisle and Tanya. â€Å"The Volturi come to erase what they perceive as the competition. Perhaps, like me, you look at this clan's golden eyes and marvel. They are difficult to understand, it's true. But the ancient ones look and see something besides their strange choice. They see power. â€Å"I have witnessed the bonds within this family – I say family and not coven. These strange golden-eyed ones deny their very natures. But in return have they found something worth even more, perhaps, than mere gratification of desire? I've made a little study of them in my time here, and it seems to me that intrinsic to this intense family binding – that which makes them possible at all – is the peaceful character of this life of sacrifice. There is no aggression here like we all saw in the large southern clans that grew and diminished so quickly in their wild feuds. There is no thought for domination. And Aro knows this better than I do.† I watched Aro's face as Garrett's words condemned him, waiting tensely for some response. But Aro's face was only politely amused, as if waiting for a tantrum-throwing child to realize that no one was paying attention to his histrionics. â€Å"Carlisle assured us all, when he told us what was coming, that he did not call us here to fight. These witnesses† – Garrett pointed to Siobhan and Liam – â€Å"agreed to give evidence, to slow the Volturi advance with their presence so that Carlisle would get the chance to present his case. â€Å"But some of us wondered† – his eyes flashed to Eleazars face – â€Å"if Carlisle having truth on his side would be enough to stop the so-called justice. Are the Volturi here to protect the safety of our secrecy, or to protect their own power? Did they come to destroy an illegal creation, or a way of life? Could they be satisfied when the danger turned out to be no more than a misunderstanding? Or would they push the issue without the excuse of justice? â€Å"We have the answer to all these questions. We heard it in Aro's lying words – we have one with a gift of knowing such things for certain – and we see it now in Caius's eager smile. Their guard is just a mindless weapon, a tool in their masters' quest for domination. â€Å"So now there are more questions, questions that you must answer. Who rules you, nomads? Do you answer to someone's will besides your own? Are you free to choose your path, or will the Volturi decide how you will live? â€Å"I came to witness. I stay to fight. The Volturi care nothing for the death of the child. They seek the death of our free will.† He turned, then, to face the ancients. â€Å"So come, I say! Let's hear no more lying rationalizations. Be honest in your intents as we will be honest in ours. We will defend our freedom. You will or will not attack it. Choose now, and let these witnesses see the true issue debated here.† Once more he looked to the Volturi witnesses, his eyes probing each face. The power of his words was evident in their expressions. â€Å"You might consider joining us. If you think the Volturi will let you live to tell this tale, you are mistaken. We may all be destroyed† – he shrugged – â€Å"but then again, maybe not. Perhaps we are on more equal footing than they know. Perhaps the Volturi have finally met their match. I promise you this, though – if we fall, so do you.† He ended his heated speech by stepping back to Kate's side and then sliding forward in a half-crouch, prepared for the onslaught. Aro smiled. â€Å"Avery pretty speech, my revolutionary friend.† Garrett remained poised for attack. â€Å"Revolutionary?† he growled. â€Å"Who am I revolting against, might I ask? Are you my king? Do you wish me to call you master, too, like your sycophantic guard?† â€Å"Peace, Garrett,† Aro said tolerantly. â€Å"I meant only to refer to your time of birth. Still a patriot, I see.† Garrett glared back furiously. â€Å"Let us ask our witnesses,† Aro suggested. â€Å"Let us hear their thoughts before we make our decision. Tell us, friends† – and he turned his back casually on us, moving a few yards toward his mass of nervous observers hovering even closer now to the edge of the forest – â€Å"what do you think of all this? I can assure you the child is not what we feared. Do we take the risk and let the child live? Do we put our world in jeopardy to preserve their family intact? Or does earnest Garrett have the right of it? Will you join them in a fight against our sudden quest for dominion?† The witnesses met his gaze with careful faces. One, a small black-haired woman, looked briefly at the dark blond male at her side. â€Å"Are those our only choices?† she asked suddenly, gaze flashing back to Aro. â€Å"Agree with you, or fight against you?† â€Å"Of course not, most charming Makenna,† Aro said, appearing horrified that anyone could come to that conclusion. â€Å"You may go in peace, of course, as Amun did, even if you disagree with the council's decision.† Makenna looked at her mate's face again, and he nodded minutely. â€Å"We did not come here for a fight.† She paused, exhaled, then said, â€Å"We came here to witness. And our witness is that this condemned family is innocent. Everything that Garrett claimed is the truth.† â€Å"Ah,† Aro said sadly. â€Å"I'm sorry you see us in that way. But such is the nature of our work.† â€Å"It is not what I see, but what I feel,† Makenna's maize-haired mate spoke in a high, nervous voice. He glanced at Garrett. â€Å"Garrett said they have ways of knowing lies. I, too, know when I am hearing the truth, and when I am not.† With frightened eyes he moved closer to his mate, waiting for Aro's reaction. â€Å"Do not fear us, friend Charles. No doubt the patriot truly believes what he says,† Aro chuckled lightly, and Charles's eyes narrowed. â€Å"That is our witness,† Makenna said. â€Å"We're leaving now.† She and Charles backed away slowly, not turning before they were lost from view in the trees. One other stranger began to retreat the same way, then three more darted after him. I evaluated the thirty-seven vampires that stayed. A few of them appeared just too confused to make the decision. But the majority of them seemed only too aware of the direction this confrontation had taken. I guessed that they were giving up a head start in favor of knowing exactly who would be chasing after them. I was sure Aro saw the same thing I did. He turned away, walking back to his guard with a measured pace. He stopped in front of them and addressed them in a clear voice. â€Å"We are outnumbered, dearest ones,† he said. â€Å"We can expect no outside help. Should we leave this question undecided to save ourselves?† â€Å"No, master,† they whispered in unison. â€Å"Is the protection of our world worth perhaps the loss of some of our number?† â€Å"Yes,† they breathed. â€Å"We are not afraid.† Aro smiled and turned to his black-clad companions. â€Å"Brothers,† Aro said somberly, â€Å"there is much to consider here.† â€Å"Let us counsel,† Caius said eagerly. â€Å"Let us counsel,† Marcus repeated in an uninterested tone. Aro turned his back to us again, facing the other ancients. They joined hands to form a black-shrouded triangle. As soon as Aro's attention was engaged in the silent counsel, two more of their witnesses disappeared silently into the forest. I hoped, for their sakes, that they were fast. This was it. Carefully, I loosened Renesmee's arms from my neck. â€Å"You remember what I told you?† Tears welled in her eyes, but she nodded. â€Å"I love you,† she whispered. Edward was watching us now, his topaz eyes wide. Jacob stared at us from the corner of his big dark eye. â€Å"I love you, too,† I said, and then I touched her locket. â€Å"More than my own life.† I kissed her forehead. Jacob whined uneasily. I stretched up on my toes and whispered into his ear. â€Å"Wait until they're totally distracted, then run with her. Get as far from this place as you possibly can. When you've gone as far as you can on foot, she has what you need to get you in the air.† Edward's and Jacob's faces were almost identical masks of horror, despite the fact that one of them was an animal. Renesmee reached for Edward, and he took her in his arms. They hugged each other tightly. â€Å"This is what you kept from me?† he whispered over her head. â€Å"From Aro,† I breathed. â€Å"Alice?† I nodded. His face twisted with understanding and pain. Had that been the expression on my face when I'd finally put together Alice's clues? Jacob was growling quietly, a low rasp that was as even and unbroken as a purr. His hackles were stiff and his teeth exposed. Edward kissed Renesmee's forehead and both her cheeks, then he lifted her to Jacob's shoulder. She scrambled agilely onto his back, pulling herself into place with handfuls of his fur, and fit herself easily into the dip between his massive shoulder blades. Jacob turned to me, his expressive eyes full of agony, the rumbling growl still grating through his chest. â€Å"You're the only one we could ever trust her with,† I murmured to him. â€Å"If you didn't love her so much, I could never bear this. I know you can protect her, Jacob.† He whined again, and dipped his head to butt it against my shoulder. â€Å"I know,† I whispered. â€Å"I love you, too, Jake. You'll always be my best man.† A tear the size of a baseball rolled into the russet fur beneath his eye. Edward leaned his head against the same shoulder where he'd placed Renesmee. â€Å"Goodbye, Jacob, my brother†¦ my son.† The others were not oblivious to the farewell scene. Their eyes were locked on the silent black triangle, but I could tell they were listening. â€Å"Is there no hope, then?† Carlisle whispered. There was no fear in his voice. Just determination and acceptance. â€Å"There is absolutely hope,† I murmured back. It could be true, I told myself. â€Å"I only know my own fate.† Edward took my hand. He knew that he was included. When I said my fate, there was no question that I meant the two of us. We were just halves of the whole. Esme's breath was ragged behind me. She moved past us, touching our faces as she passed, to stand beside Carlisle and hold his hand. Suddenly, we were surrounded by murmured goodbyes and I love you's. â€Å"If we live through this,† Garrett whispered to Kate, â€Å"I'll follow you anywhere, woman.† â€Å"Now he tells me,† she muttered. Rosalie and Emmett kissed quickly but passionately. Tia caressed Benjamin's face. He smiled back cheerfully, catching her hand and holding it against his cheek. I didn't see all the expressions of love and pain. I was distracted by a sudden fluttering pressure against the outside of my shield. I couldn't tell where it came from, but it felt like it was directed at the edges of our group, Siobhan and Liam particularly. The pressure did no damage, and then it was gone. There was no change in the silent, still forms of the counseling ancients. But perhaps there was some signal I'd missed. â€Å"Get ready,† I whispered to the others. â€Å"It's starting.†

Monday, September 16, 2019

Research Method for Computing & Technology Essay

2.0 Introduction Nowadays, people prefer to look information online instead of looking at catalogue or books. For example, woman would prefer to look for sales event online instead of looking at the catalogue that delivers to the house. Not all of the household will get the mails for promotion of the month because some postman will throw the mails away as these cases had already happened according to The Star news on Sunday, 21st of July 2013. This website is proposed for user to shop and enjoy shopping easily. The main purpose of this website is to provide the information of the malls in Malaysia. The information includes sales event, performance organize by third party or particular mall, the mall map etc. There are few similar websites like , and These websites only show either their own particular mall information only or sales promotion only. This website is a combine and improve version of these existing websites as there are many improvements are needed for it. Besides, it will include social function like allowing user to post comment or sharing status by using Facebook account at the sales event area so that others can read and up to date anytime instead of go to the location personally to check out the event as not people now spend most of the time working and rest at home after that. Other than that, user can check out the mall map as well so they could able to know whether the store they looking for exist in the mall. The details of the store include the location of the store in the mall, store’s telephone number and brief explanation of the store. The picture of the store entrance and the shop sign will be provided too. In conclusion, this website will act as a shopping and event guide that allow shoppers to shop smart and save on time. 3.0 Project Background I got this idea to create the website while I am looking for promotion online. There are many similar websites but the information are not complete. One of the example is user cannot post comment for the particular event which I always wanted to know what is going on the event or how is the  atmosphere there. I always hope that there is a photo sharing function under the event post. This proposed system is created for user to shop easily and hunt for sales event easily. Many people do not know when the sales will be but once they browse this website, they could easily get the information they want. As well as they have some inquiry about products or others, they may just give them a call by searching the phone number from the website. This proposed website basically act as a shopping guide for user by showing all the related information. There are some difficulties while deciding the structure of the proposed website. My idea was providing information but I was told that my course is Web Media Technology. Hence, I should include multimedia or social network. Then, I have change my idea from only information to posting up event poster, flash banner etc. User can as well as connect with Facebook and post comment at certain area. 4.0 Problem Statement The common problems that faced by shoppers are where is the location, what is the operating hours, how is the atmosphere there, what promotion is going on etc. They will spend some time to search for the information and reconsider whether it is worth to go. 4.1 Problem Description This proposed website will include information that is needed by shoppers. For instance, shopper might take some time to walk around the mall when they are not familiar with it. With this website, it could become a guide for them so they do not need to waste time walking around the mall and might end up with nothing. Besides, the information like telephone number is useful too. Shoppers do not need to worry when they face any problems about the stuffs they bought. They can just call to the store for inquiry just by only browsing this website. 5.0 Project Aim To provide users every useful information in malls. 6.0 Objective To allow users to look for the information in each mall within Malaysia. To help users to save time on shopping and shop smartly. To give more information on the events which will hold in the mall. To share the tips about the event which is going on. To provide the floor plan to user and assist them to shop. 7.0 Research Question 1. How social networks are useful for website? 2. What kind of information will be show in website? 3. What are the guidelines to help shoppers to shop easily? 4. Can the store’s telephone number be found on other websites? 5. Which methodology is suitable for this proposed project? 6. How long will it takes to develop this website? 7. Which software tools are needed to develop this website? 8. What are the functions of the software? 8.0 Project Development Plan 8.1 Domain Design The major information of my project is about shopping malls in Malaysia while the minor area is allowing social network user to post comment for the event, which will be showed if there is. My targeted domains for this project are local residents, travellers and shopaholics. One of the similar website is One Stop Malaysia. This website contains most of the information of Malaysia which are like foods, education, travel guide etc. For instance, their travel guide blog post allows visitor to post comment. The comment area is embedded with Blogspot while for my project, I will allow Facebook user to connect for posting comment so that they do not need to create account or fill in their particular details just to post a comment. To sum up this, my project contains most of the shopping information such  as malls location, sales event, performance event and so on. Visitors can post comment for the sales event. Therefore, the others can take the comment as reference. Comment like â€Å"left only big sizes† might help those who are petites, so they do not need to waste time and petrol to head over the sales event location after their working hours. This feature is specially made for visitor to share their experience or status about their shopping trip. Visitors can also share the useful tips at the comment area. Other than that, visitors also can have other information from the website such as the malls information. For example, visitor can look for the particular store location from the website. It will show the exact floor and the store telephone number as these information cannot be easily search. 8.2 Technical Design Now days, there are a lot of software development methodology such as SDLC (system development life cycle), Rapid Application Development (RAD), Agile Methodology and others. I will choose Prototyping Methodology for this project as Prototyping has more benefits for a web-based system as it is more suitable for system develop by website. Prototyping methodology is usually used for system that tends to be modified during the development of the system. By using this type of methodology, the development of it will definitely get a higher user satisfaction results because the errors are fixed when it is found during the development process. This action can actually lower down the percentage risk of failure. This methodology required to collect feedbacks from user. This could exposes developers to potential future system enhancements because they know and gained the problems feedbacks as well as bad comment. Next, the tools that I will be using for development of this project are Adobe Dreamweaver, Adobe Flash and Adobe Photoshop. All this software functions are taught by my lecturers. Therefore, I am familiar with the functions and feature from the software. I will be coding and designing the layout of the project by using Adobe Dreamweaver. It is a website development tools which has most of the features. While Adobe Photoshop is an editing software for photos and pictures. I will be using it for Posters  editing. Last but not least, Adobe Flash is for creating the banners for advertisement or greetings. I will be using it to make my project more interesting. 9.0 Data Collection Plan 9.1 Primary Data Collection Focus group would be good for carrying out the primary data collection for user requirement of the website. This technique requires a group of people that met the requirement and fulfill the criteria which is related to shopping in order to carry out a good research. These participants are required to spend some time for a short survey. This is to find out what real consumers think and what they feel according to the questions asked. After that, participants will gather around the table and start discussing some topics and provide a range or views. Participants should express their own emotions and feelings honestly and openly as the answers are all private and kept confidential. Next, the questionnaire is also an ideal technique to perform quantitative and qualitative research. This is an inexpensive way as it does not cost too much and it saves a lot of time. The questionnaires can be distribute at shopping malls and collect from shoppers after they are done for it. By showing the appreciation, a small gift like discount vouchers could be given to the shoppers and it is also a way to attract shoppers to do the questionnaire. Focus Group Discussion 1. What function do you need in malls guide and promotion website? Explain why do you need that? 2. If this website is build, how often will you browse it? 3. What kind of information do you wish to see in this website? 4. Which is your ideal similar website now? Explain why? 9.2 Secondary Data Collection There are few sources for secondary data like books, journals, website, newspaper etc. People now do more reading on internet as most of the  information can search through there. Researcher can actually read or reference the work in website to get some inspiration there. Example websites are, and etc. 10.0 Personal Reflection Limitations and challenges are the problems that researcher will meet during the development. Researcher has not much knowledge on building a functional website. Thus, this will be affecting process. Researcher has to look and understand the coding from websites or other projects that are done by expertise, as the information could be helpful. Studying the code and understanding them has become a challenge for me in order to complete the proposed system because I have not done any website which is linked to social networks like Facebook and Twitter. This feature requires special coding to embed them to the website. I will have to reference the other websites that has similar function. Lastly, different browsers like Firefox, Safari, Google Chrome, Opera and others have their own technical issues and structures when browsing websites. This will take some time to test the proposed website in each browser and check the problems occur. As mentioned, there are many different browsers but Google Chrome is the most common browser in market. Thus, I have choose Google Chrome for the ideal choice to build this proposed website. 11.0 Conclusion In conclusion, this proposed website is proposed to help users on shopping. There are few similar website but they have not much information. I have jotted down all the useful information which gather from other websites and will apply them to this proposed system as an enhancement. 12.0 References 1. BEH, Y. H. 2013. Thousands of undelivered mail dumped in leafy Ukay Heights ravine. [online] 21st of July. Available at:

Sunday, September 15, 2019

How does administrative law change bureaucratic behaviour

The Committee presented a plan for an entirely new system of administrative law that rested upon a fresh vision of the role that external review agencies should play in safeguarding the rights of the public regarding executive decision-making. Three Acts were implemented by the Parliament. The Administrative Appeals Tribunal Act 1975 (Cth) (AAT Act) established two bodies – an Administrative Appeals Tribunal to undertake merit review of a general range ofCommonwealth decisions, and an Administrative Review Council to perform a research, advisory and coordination function. The Ombudsman Act 1976 (Cth) established an Ombudsman to investigate complaints of maladministration by Commonwealth government agencies. The Administrative Decisions Oudicial Review) Act 1977 (Cth) conferred upon the newly-created Federal Court a reformed Jurisdiction to undertake Judicial review of Commonwealth decision-making. Purpose of Administrative Law Administrative Law concerns the relationship betwe en the government and the public.It refers to a wide range of controls exercisable by the law over the powers nd procedures of government decision-makers and administrators. It constitutes a means of protecting the rights of the public by making the government decision- makers accountable. With the growth of technology, financial institutions and globalization, society is becoming more complex, the role of government has expanded in terms of regulation and intervention. This has led to a growth in the number of bureaucratic decision makers which in turn led to an expansion in controls over administrative actions to counter balance the power of the decision makers.The Kerr and Bland Committees saw that the purpose of Administrative Law was to rotect citizens against government, when government was growing in size and exercising more administrative authority and discretionary power. It pointed to a posed threats to the rights and liberties of citizens . The view from the Kerr and Blan d Committees is compatible with that of Professor Cane that the Administrative Law can be used to regulate the way the administrators make decisions so that the power will not be misused. How to measure success of the Administrative Law?There are two views about the measurement of success of Administrative Law: (i) The instrumentalist believes the success lies in its impact on behaviour and outcomes, ence the law should bring behaviour and outcomes into conformity with specified value. (it) The non-instrumentalist believes its success lies in its rules and practices. The law could be counted as a success if it clearly, consistently and coherently expressed specified values. The supporters of regulatory approach to Administrative Law are instrumentalists whereas the supporters of legal approach are non-instrumentalists.What are the regulatory and legal approaches to Administrative Law? A regulatory system has three components (i) a set of standards that announce how eople ought to be have; (it) a mechanism for monitoring compliance with those standards; (iii) a mechanism for promoting future compliance. Administrative Law consists of a set of rules and principles about how decisions ought to be made. Individuals affected by the administrative decisions can utilize various tribunals and ombudsmen to review decisions and in turn provide incentive for the decision makers to comply with Administrative Law in future.The regulatory approach focuses on the future rather than the way decision makers behaved in the past. It aims to prevent potential issues by making the decision akers responsible for it. On the contrary, the legal approach presents administrative law to be used by complainants a means to redress past breaches so that decision makers can be held accountable for such breaches. It looks at the success of administrative law on its ability to provide redress to those adversely affected by unlawful decisions.The regulatory approach focuses accountability based on the institutional design and interaction between different organs of the system such as ombudsmen, parliamentary committee and internal review. The legal approach focuses more on the accountability of the government to the public. In constitutional terms, the regulatory approach addresses it with separation of power whereas the legal approach focuses on the concept of rule of law. Administrative law focuses on the accountability of government.By demanding compliance with administrative law principles, and by valuing review mechanisms for rectifying human error, it impacts upon the decision-making processes in order to ensure that the wrongful exercise of administrative power is curbed. The Australian tax system is an example of how administrative law impacts on bureaucratic behaviour. The tax system, being a self assessment system, encourages ne to voluntarily comply with the tax legislation. Tax compliance officers review the tax returns to identity potential risk to revenue.Wh ere the risks being identified in a review are significant, the tax office will escalate the case to an audit. During an audit, there will be an information request followed by the issuance of a position paper. If the taxpayers realize any errors in their tax returns, they can make voluntary disclosure in order to reduce any shortfall liability and penalty interests. Alternatively they can express their views if there is any contentious issue about the application of law. The taxpayers will be given an opportunity to comment on the position paper before an amended assessment is issued.The taxpayers can object to the amended assessment which is normally handled by the objection team that is independent from the compliance team. If the decision stays, an application can be lodged to the Administrative Appeals Tribunal to review the decision. The tax office has internal guidelines such as Practice Statement Law Administration for the staff to follow before any administrative decision i s made. This ensures the taxpayers would be fairly treated. Before a decision is reached, taxpayers will be iven opportunities to be heard and supply information to support their claim.The process demonstrates how the Administrative Law influences the bureaucratic behaviour. The decision-makers need to supply proper reasoning before issuing an amended assessment. What are the positive and negative changes on bureaucratic behaviour? On the positive side, more senior public servants are required to be legally trained as they are expected to make decisions based on strong legal grounds so that their decisions will be less likely to be challenged in future. The decisions being made would also be based on fairness with properly established facts.However, onerous review systems may cause potentially adverse bureaucratic behaviour. The onerous review system may sometimes lead to ‘No further action' on many potential tax evasion cases. The following explains the negative bureaucratic behaviour that is undesirable to the society goal. review the taxpayers' tax return and amend the assessments. The review period could be two or four years depending on the size of the business and the nature of entity. Once the ‘period of review expires, the tax office cannot amend the assessment unless there is fraud or evasion for which intention needs to be established.Knowing this system, some taxpayers may simply delay in supplying information or supplying irrelevant information to make the cases difficult to pursue. By contrast with the private sector for which financial target is the prime objective, the public bureaucrats may not have such incentive to pursue difficult cases that may eventually lead to tribunal review. Further to that, the tax officers need to follow strict guideline when dealing with fraud cases where intention needs to be established. As all elements need to be established before a case can be referred to prosecution, some fraud cases end up being à ¢â‚¬ËœNo further action'.This is undesirable to the societal goal as it means people who dodge the system may not be penalized. Can we Judge the success of Administrative Law as a regulatory tool primarily by its effect on bureaucratic behaviour? As mentioned above, the purpose of the Administrative Law is to make government decision-makers accountable. It promotes the fair procedures and compliance by decisions-makers with legal limitations on their powers. The public can use the merit review system to review the administrative decision of the government. The merit review allows the facts and legal aspects of the decision to be considered afresh.Based on the merits, the tribunal can affirm, vary or set aside the original decision. From a regulatory point of view, an independent body has stepped in to review the government decisions and therefore it limits the power of the bureaucrats. Therefore, the bureaucrats must obtain sufficient evidence and provide sound reasons to support th eir decisions. Furthermore, it encourages government bureaucrats to ensure they act consistently with relevant legal requirements. Based on the above, it appears that one can assert that Administrative Law has achieved its purpose as a regulatory tool that impacts on bureaucratic behaviour.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

A purely farcical character Essay

In this essay I intend to discuss the statement â€Å"Petruchio is a purely farcical character† and far I agree with it. I intend to explore Petruchios character further to determine whether he has other side to him apart from his comical side whether he is a purely farcical character. The Taming of the Shrew is a comedy, a farcical play with a lot of the humour being about the war between the sexes, which is shown in the major theme of marriage, and men trying to tame their women. Petruchio plays a big part in this with his wooing and marriage to Katherine. Petruchio is the main character in the play aswell as Katherine and he is also one of the main farcical characters who is often witty and farcical in his speeches is portrayed as a clown with a lot of comic scenes. They are quite slapstick humour as with his wedding outfit, his outfit shows him acting the clown. The description we get of his outfit is very comical and the image of the old horse. It is his wedding day and he doesn’t take it at all seriously. Another example of his humour is in Act 1 scene 2 where Petruchio and Grumio have a comic misunderstanding at the door. All these scenes are very silly and slapstick and show Petruchio as perhaps a purely farcical character, but there are other sides to him. Deceit is a major theme in The Taming of the Shrew, with many of the characters in disguise. Petruchio is one character who doesn’t swap identities with another character as we see with Lucentio and Tranio, but he does have a different disguise. He plays a role to tame Katherine and marry her so that he can be wealthy. He tricks her into believing he is a cruel man and he tells the audience this in one of his speeches (iv line 159-178). He tells them of his plans to deceive her and cure her of her shrewish ways and so she will become the dutiful wife and a lady. He does imply in this speech that he himself will also have to suffer in order to tame her (line 170-178) Petruchios character is quite deceitful and he does admit this to the audience. He is so deceitful he almost fools the audience into believing he is being himself. But he can’t be as he keeps informing them of his plans to deceive Katherine, so he obviously is not the man he portrays himself as. In the presence of his friends he is quite humorous as again with the scene where Petruchio and Grumio have the comical misunderstanding. With his friends he is more himself and is honest about what he wants, married, happy, and wealthy in Padua.