Sunday, January 12, 2020
The Role of Local Culture and Context in English Language Teaching -Mabindra Regmi The Relation between Language and Culture The structuralists portrayed language as an entity that could be segmented and through learning these segments, the totality would also be learnt. This method has been tested, challenged and in many cases discarded in the world of linguistics. The conception, propagation and inevitable discontinuation of ever new methods has prompted Sowden to express Ã¢â¬Å"there has indeed been methodological fatigue, leading many to the pragmatic conclusion that informed eclecticism offers the best approach for the future. (Sowden, 2007, p. 304). Perhaps, eclecticism is the right trend while implementing ELT methods. One of the factors that should be considered, however, is that there seems to be a deep connection between language and culture unlike the belief of the structuralists. The concept of language teaching now is that of concentration in what the learners learn or w ant to learn rather that what is to be taught. As the classrooms get more learner-centered, it can be assumed that the attitude and the initiatives from the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ side will be more prominent.Since a person is shaped by ones culture and local setting, we can assume that the importance of cultural context in language teaching will grow as learning becomes more learner centered. It is in conjunction with this shift of emphasis away from teaching and towards learning, that there has appeared a growing awareness of the role played by culture in the classroom. (Sowden C, 2007, p. 304) It is not only the learners that come with their own culture in the classroom, the teachers also bring their own culture. This is particularly true if the language teacher is not from the locality.Sowden warns the teacher Ã¢â¬Å"to be aware not only of the cultures of their students and their environment, but also of the cultures that they themselves bring to the classroomÃ¢â¬ (Sowden, 2007, p. 305). Thus, it can be seen, however inconclusive, that culture of both the teacher and learner plays an important role in the language learning environment and they have to be addressed for effective learning to take place. This intricate mutual relationship between language and culture may be the key to unlock the language teaching methodologies of the future. Whenever we talk about anguage and its use, it is important to figure out the relation between language and culture. There are few things we need to ask ourselves in this regard. Can language exist independent of culture? Is learning a new language (English) definitive of learning the culture of native speakers of English? Who are the native speakers of English? Will the culture of the native speakers be appropriate in the setting of the language learner? Can language exist independent of culture? A language cannot exist in vacuum. It has to express some objective function when utterances are made or some text is written.Whe n we do make use of language, the production made is generally about what we know or what we have experienced. What we know and experience mostly confines within the local setting that we have grown up and where we are residing. Thus, local context becomes inseparable from the use of language. Is learning a new language (English) definitive of learning the culture of native speakers of English? When we learn a new language, we need to adopt the culture of the target language to a certain extent because the cultural aspect comes amalgamated with the target language. But what about the learners?The learners have their own set of cultural experiences and objectives of using a language. They have their own cultural amalgamation which has to be addressed during target language learning process to make it meaningful and relevant to the learners. We can assume that integration of local culture and context is inevitable while learning a target language. Who are the native speakers of Englis h? The distinction that makes a native speaker is generally very vague and often misleading. It might be important to look into the terminology if we are to explain what English is.A dictionary definition might say that native is belonging to a certain geographic location. In the case of English we must consider the fact that it is spoken in many parts of the world and more and more people are adopting it as the first language of communication. In this setting we must consider the appropriateness of calling certain speakers native and others not. Furthermore, even within the native speakers we find many varieties as in the British English, American English, Australian English, or South African English. If the English language is to be made a ruly global one, one must leave the notion of Ã¢â¬Ënative speakersÃ¢â¬â¢ behind. Will the culture of the native speakers be appropriate in the setting of the language learner? The culture and context of the learner and the native user of Eng lish may differ very contrastively. The traditional native speakers of English have their own cultural and contextual setting and it creeps into the language that they use. It should not be surprising thus, that the English used in non-native setting has the purpose of academia without much cultural interference.But can English have the same purpose if it were to only transfer the cultural and contextual nature of the target language? In order to make English learning a holistic experience, it is important that culture and local context are integrated so the learner has a more comprehensive grasp of the language. Different Views Regarding the Role of Culture in Language Class Different people have expressed their opinions regarding the role of culture in language class. Phyak, P has collected four such opinions from various personnel in his article integrating local culture in the EFL context of Nepal: An ignored agenda?The first view expressed by Byram and Flemming (Byram, 1997; By ram and Fleming, 1998) states that the target language culture should be taught in ELT in order to help learners to acculturate into the culture of English countries. The second view expressed by Karchu, Nelson and Canagaraja (Kachru, 1986; Kachru and Nelson, 1996; Canagarajah, 1999) opines that there is no need of teaching target culture especially in the contexts where different institutionalised varieties of English are in practice. Similarly, the third view by Kramsch and Sullivan (Kramsch and Sullivan, 1996) states plainly that Ã¢â¬Ëlocal cultureÃ¢â¬â¢ in TEFL should be taught.Finally, the fourth view by Alptekin, Jenkins and Seidlhofer (Alptekin, 2005; Jenkins, 2005; Seidlhofer, 2001) says that since English is a lingua franca, it should be taught in a culture-free context. In the same article Phyak gives a fifth opinion regarding the use of culture in language class by assimilating the highlights of the above opinions where he advises the teachers to use both target and n ative cultures with priority to local culture (Phyak, P). Whatever the views of applied linguists all over the world, we cannot disregard two core realities.The first is that while learning a second language, the influence of the culture of that language is inevitable. The second fact is that the learner of second language comes equipped with the culture of the first language. If no association is made between the culture of the first language and the learning of the second one, the learning will not be as effective. Therefore, inclusion of local culture and context should be more prominent in the initial phases and gradually gear more towards the target culture so that the integration is seamless in the end and language skill transition is more comprehensive.English as an International Language Hegemony of English language is a global phenomenon and the onset of modern technology, the computer; and as the choice language of the academia will further strengthen it. Eventually, the s pread of English will probably be the root cause for disappearance of majority of world languages. Having said that, one must accommodate the fact that the use of English in international communication is increasing, and thus, it is gaining momentum as being an international language. The rise of English as an international language has created many concerns among the laymen, experts, anglophiles and chauvinists alike.The concerns can be divided into two factions. The first leads us towards convergence of all world languages into one giant English language. Because of the advent of printing, and more recently, media; languages, specifically English; are being standardized so that there is uniformity in the manner we write and speak. Many believe this to be a positive step towards world unification. There may be advantages to uniformity, but the question is; does it outweigh the disadvantages that it might bring in the form of Ã¢â¬Ëlanguage deathÃ¢â¬â¢ as expressed by David Cryst al or loss of identity?The other faction is made up of personnel who are asking this very question. The prominence of English might be an indicator of decline of other languages. When a language is lost, it is not only the means of communication that is lost with it. There are contextual and cultural associations with languages, and in addition; it also forms the corpora of accumulated knowledge of a community. All this will also be lost with the dying language. Moreover, there is a strong affinity of the language with the identity of a person or a community.Although English may provide with alternate identity, as shall be discussed later in this paper, the primary form of identity shall be lost, especially if the learning of English is subtractive in terms of the first language. Discrepancies aside, internationalization of English is inevitable. The question now remains is how we are going to bring about policies for other languages that are in existence. In order to understand why English is fast becoming a global language, we must try and analyze why is it important for us to learn English.There are many reasons why an individual would want to learn English. i. English may be a factor for obtaining better employment opportunities. ii. English is the medium of communication for business, recreation and competitive tournaments. iii. English is almost mandatory for learners pursuing higher academic achievements and publishing of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s findings. iv. The knowledge of English may provide higher social standing or identity in many cases. We can see that English language empowers a person both in terms of social and material power.Thus we can see the attraction towards learning English. The choices that the language communities have is either to have subtractive learning of English and forget oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own linguistic heritage, as is happening mostly in developing countries like Nepal; or to make the learning process additive by retaining oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own language intact. It can be assumed that the later alternative is more acceptable. The reason for the long windedness of the explanation above brings us back to the core discussion of this paper: local context and culture in teaching or learning English.Now as we have made a huge circle from the inevitable internationalization of English to the better alternate of additive learning of English; it is time to ponder over how we are going to teach English language. English Language, Local Culture and Social Identity If we want to have mastery over English language, then I believe we must find a way to make the language practical to its learners. Just reading the literature of the language or using the language in stereotype British or American cultural setting will not hold much significance to the learner of English as a foreign language.What needs to be done is to bring about association between the language being learnt and the experience of the learners. This will provide platform f or practicality of the language being learnt. In order to understand why local context and local culture must be integrated into teaching of English language, we must also be familiar with how culture and local context plays a role in language learning. Culture and Language Reflect each other The common notion regarding the purpose of language learning has been related to communication.Because of the researches done in sociolinguistics and discourse, we should consider the fact that language is not only Ã¢â¬ËunderstandingÃ¢â¬â¢ what the other person is expressing but it is also necessary that we understand the text at a discourse level where cultural and individual background conveys deeper meaning to the language items used. Language is not only communicating with words but we have deep rooted cultural and contextual schemata and frames which are reflected in the language that we use. Thus it is important to analyze the meaning of discourse at cultural and contextual level.The reason that we should consider the Frame and Schema theories of discourse analysis when talking about the language is that if we are not able to express or comprehend the schema created through cultural setting, only understanding the text in communication will not be able to justify the meaning that should have been understood. Only through associating and integrating the language that we are trying to learn (English) into social and cultural setting shall we be able to exploit the nuances of the expression made in a language.Englebert believes that there is a cultural variation between the learner and the language and that the Ã¢â¬Å"teacher hosting foreign students must come to terms with the fact that those students are immersed in a culture with which they are not familiar, and that they bring with them not only their limited knowledge of the language, but a myriad of assumptions based on generations of cultural indoctrinationÃ¢â¬ . (Englebert, 2004). These assumptions based on Ã¢â¬Å"cultural indoctrinationÃ¢â¬ are at the core of schema of the learner.Not only the culture of the target language but even the prescribed packaged methodology might create confusion in teaching English as a foreign language. In her study among the Asian students studying in New Zealand, Li found that Ã¢â¬Å"the interactive teaching methods adopted by New Zealand teachers are culturally incompatible with Asian studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning conceptualizations. The findings suggest that some teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ adoption of the communicative or interactive teaching approach led to Asian studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ negative learning experience in New ZealandÃ¢â¬ (Li, 2004).This shows that the cultural background and the mindset of the learner should be considered while teaching English. Subsequently, it also indicates the integration of local context and culture of the learner for smoother and more effective teaching learning experience. If the learner of English is only familiar with her o wn experience based on her own cultural and local setting, trying to incorporate a different language with a different setting will make it literally Ã¢â¬ËforeignÃ¢â¬â¢. The Ã¢â¬ËforeignnessÃ¢â¬â¢ can be significantly eliminated if local context and culture of the learner is being used in the target language.Thus integrating the cultural and contextual setting in language learning will be important. English Language and Social Identity Bonny Norton has explained that in the current social situation, English language helps create a more powerful identity for the individuals because of the advantages associated with the proficiency of English Language (Norton, 2007). She further explains that construction of identity through learning English are complex and dynamic. The five examples that she has taken in her article all give different perspectives people have for English language based on their cultural and contextual backgrounds.If individuals from different social and ethni cal backgrounds have different concepts about how English should be taught and learnt, then we can assume that it is the experience of the learner that is influencing such perspectives. An individual is the product of the local culture and context, so we cannot ignore the importance of inclusion of local context and culture in English pedagogy. Norton recommends that we should not overlook the focus on individual account while teaching English.She further explains that the researches on language teaching and identity is fragmented and it has to be made more organized, and if English belongs to the people who speak it, expansion of English in this Global era is better (Norton, 2007). Inclusion of Local Context and Culture in ELT in Nepal Along with the gathering momentum of inclusion of local culture and context in language teaching across the world, an initiative has been started in Nepal where linguists and social activists are advocating for inclusion of local context and culture, namely, ethnic languages in mainstream education.Alongside with this initiative there are many linguists and teachers of English language who are advocating for inclusion of local context and culture in English Language Teaching. The problem that the Nepali society is facing is how to bring about the implementation of such content and context in English language. Looking at the coursebooks and educational materials, it is evident that the English teaching is heavily influenced by the culture of target language users. Although some content and stories seem that they have local context, but the exercises that follow again reflect to the target language culture.On the other hand, the teachers are also imparted trainings and education aligning with the target language culture. In this ambience, it will be difficult to implement inclusive local content and culture while teaching of English. In order to overcome this impasse, some measures can be taken so that there is a momentum towards progressive implementation of the discussed issue. First, the language policy makers and the educators of the country need to come together to make a master plan on how to develop materials, train teachers and set objectives on inclusion of local culture and context in ELT.Only when a concrete set of objectives and a clear vision of the implementational procedures have been codified, the initiative can move forward. Second, there has to be a mass drive for collection of local content in the form of stories, poems, articles and the like which also reflects local culture. The content corpus has to be exhaustive so that all the major aspects that need to be covered are covered. Agencies like Nepal English Language TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ Association, NELTA, can be instrumental in taking the necessary initiatives.It is wise to include people from different academic, professional, age group, ethnic, gender, and geographical backgrounds to make the corpus comprehensive and complete. Third, the gathered content has to be carefully cataloged, edited and selected for practical use. There may be many ways by which the content can be used. The content can be an integrated one where a little of everything is included, or it might also be ethnic or locality specific where different communities make use of different relevant parts of the corpus.The fourth, which might also be the most important, is to enable the teacher of English to believe that local content and context is not only necessary but is the most effective way of teaching or learning a language. The teacher should also have autonomy to develop content from her own locality adjusting to the need of the learners there. Perhaps the most difficult part of this endeavor will be to discard the prevalent target culture based content in favor of local culture based one. But once the importance is felt and the initiative commenced, language learning process will take a meaningful and applicable turn.The learners then will not be learning English in vacuum but they can associate their own life experiences to the language being learnt. Finally, a monitoring and evaluation mechanism should be developed in order to judge how successful the implementation of the initiative has been. The monitoring and evaluating body can also make necessary changes in the whole process as the problems arise. Association and Comprehension through Local Context in ELT If there is association between the local context and culture, and English Language teaching; the learners might benefit in many different ways.As Lengkanawati states Ã¢â¬Å"we can conclude that the choice and the intensity of using language learning strategies is influenced by many factors, one of which is the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ cultural backgroundÃ¢â¬ (Lengkanawati, 2004), the association of local culture and English language teaching might help the learner build better learning strategies. It will lead the learner to grasp deeper meaning of the target languag e and use it efficiently and productively. Moreover, the differences that lie within the variations of English will make the learner appreciate that context and culture are essential for language learning.All this will lead to a global culture where one retains her native culture while learning that of the target language and thus of the whole world. We have discussed previously about the nature of association between language and culture. In addition, we also discussed about the emergence of English as an international language and the advantages of learning it. Then we went on to how local context and culture can be integrated into teaching English in Nepal. Now, we shall focus on advantages there might be in integrating local context and culture while teaching English in three different stages.The association of local context and culture can be done in three levels: using local context and culture while learning English, Using the context and culture of the target language, and i ntegrating the two cultures to create multicultural or global comprehension. 1. Using the local cultural and contextual setting while learning English. Using local context and culture will enable the learners to grasp the deeper meaning of English because they can associate the cultural and contextual meaning that they are familiar with.In Barfield and UzarskiÃ¢â¬â¢s findings, Ã¢â¬Å"the classroom observation showed that students in pair and group works were more interactive when they had to discuss on their local cultures than when they had to discuss on different stories or texts which they were not familiar with. Ã¢â¬ Contextualization will further enable the learner to be proficient in the language at a faster pace. The learner will understand how a different language is not very different from oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own. This methodology needs to be applied on the learners at least at the beginning.The learners must be given ample opportunities to interact in the target language. Th is is only possible if the content that is being used is related to local context or culture. If target language culture is given as a topic of interaction, the learners may have nothing to contribute and will be less willing to proceed further. 2. Using the culture and context of the target language The users of the target language are varied. There is no single context or culture that defines a language like English. Therefore, it will be difficult to identify the target culture when we talk of English.This also indicates that even within the same language there is influence of local context and culture. This will make the learner understand that the language is not entirely free from the culture and context of a community. For example, we can take metro English that the LondonersÃ¢â¬â¢ use. It is very different from the traditional Standard or BBC English that we learn in Nepal or the other parts of the world. Sometimes there is a discrepancy in lexical meanings and pronunciati on too. A pavement for the British might be sidewalk for the Americans.A mate is a friend in Australia and spouse in England. The fact that even among the native speakers of English in different countries the linguistic items have different meanings will enable the learners to realize that culture or local context is the key factor in using and understanding a language. It will also give an insight that language is culture and context specific and not medium specific. To clarify this statement we can safely assume that the people coming from same cultural and contextual setting will share more meanings than people from cross-culture sharing the same language.This demarcation will be of vital importance because the learner will be able to comprehend that to understand a person is not only understanding the language but understanding the local context and culture as well. It will further inspire the learners of English to be familiar with different cultural settings of the people that use the language. This kind of interpretation of language should be carried out at intermediate and advanced levels where the learners have been made familiar of the inclusion of their own cultural and local contexts while learning English. 3.The emergence of a Global culture When more and more people start becoming familiar with the local culture and context of more and more places, then a common, integrated culture will emerge. This is the Global phenomenon that has been extensively discussed in every sphere of modern human civilization. This global concept of the language and cross-cultural integration should be the ultimate outcome of language learning. When we are able to identify issues of global importance and contribute to it in a local way, then we will be adherent to the post-modernist maxim of Ã¢â¬Å"think globally, act locallyÃ¢â¬ .This is a concept that might be difficult to understand for many learners. There is also a paradox of going local to harbor a global outlo ok. This in turn complicates the nature of language that we use in the modern world. The learners of languages, and specifically of dominant language like English, should consider the integration of local context and language. Considering the complexity of the process and inputs, learners of the tertiary level of English should be taught at this comprehensive level. Assimilation of Various Cultures for Global InterpretationBarfield and Uzarski have a very interesting notion regarding language integration when they opine that even if an indigenous language is lost, which is happening at an alarming rate all over the world, through integration it can be preserved within another language like English. Interestingly, despite the loss or future loss of an indigenous language, the Ã¢â¬Å"rootsÃ¢â¬ of that indigenous culture can be preserved through the learning of another language, such as English. (Barfield and Uzarski, 2009) This is one notion that can be construed as positive aspect of assimilation of local culture into a Global one.Even though we might have strong opinions regarding local languages and cultures that we have inherited, and feel strongly towards dominance and ultimate displacement that a language like English will do to other local languages, the only way to actually save a part of the culture and local form of language might be through English. In order to achieve this, it would be important to integrate local context and culture in teaching languages like English. On the other hand, because English is fast becoming the lingua franca of the world, there should also be a global ownership of the language.If we consider only one of the cultures of the native speakers then the globalization of the language will not be possible. In order to truly make a language like English a global one, and for all the cultures to feel that they are also a part of this global phenomenon, integration of local culture and context is important. So, at the end, every individual language community can feel the ownership of global English through integration and assimilation. Contrastively, the cultural and local contexts of societies that use English language are varied and it would be impossible to integrate everything about all the cultures.To make it comprehensible in the global arena, we should find out commonalities that exist in all the cultures and localities across the world and try to establish a common contextual and cultural condition for the language to evolve into a Global Language. Such understanding and cohesion will provide Ã¢â¬Å"the abilities to perform effectively and appropriately with members of another language-culture background on their termsÃ¢â¬ (Barfield and Uzarski, 2009). Conclusion This article has assumed certain developments in English language based on current global trends.It has assumed that English is fast becoming a global language and it will become more so in the future. It has also assumed that the local languages will decline and decay in the face of English as their adversary. Considering these base assumptions, the article has provided insight into understanding the importance of English language and equal importance of using local context and culture while teaching English. In conclusion, we can reaffirm the essence of the whole discussion in the following manner: first, we need to understand that we use English as a method of communication and this language is fast becoming a global anguage. Because we use it in our communication, the language cannot be excluded from the local context and culture because they are what we are likely to be communicating about. There may be differences in opinions regarding how or if local context and culture should be used in teaching English, but it is essential that we integrate local context and culture. Second, use of local context and culture in teaching English will depend on the nature of the local setting. Same system may not be applicab le in all communities.Therefore, how the integration is to be done should be tailored to suit the needs of a particular community or a country. In case of Nepal, this can initiate with development of content corpus based on multilingual communities existing in the country and making a broad plan on what and how to integrate the content thus collected and selected. Third, the use of local context and culture can be done following a procedural format where local context and culture can be given more priority in the earlier stages of learning English language.Slowly, learning of the culture and context of the target language is to be achieved for more comprehensive understanding. When integration is done among various communities and language groups, then English will emerge as a true global language with global ownership. Finally, we should also consider the possibility that many present languages of the world might one day die. And the only possibility of its context and culture to b e passed on may be through integration into a dominant language like English. All these expositions make the use of local context and culture in English Language Teaching a necessity.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Friday, December 27, 2019
Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1622 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Marketing Essay Type Research paper Level High school Did you like this example? 1 Introduction of Introduction of Premier Inn and its plans in Singapore Premier Inn International Hotels is a part of Britain-based company, Whitbread PLC, which operates and owns the largest lodging business, Premier Inn of the UK. Worldwide, youll find at present eight Premier Resort hotels over the United Arabs Emirates and Indian as well as the corporation carries aspirational development methods to grow to fifty hotels (around 10,000 bedrooms) across the Middle-East, India and South-East Asia by 2018. Erik van Keulen, senior vice-president for development, Asia-Pacific, stated: We want our hotels (in Southeast Asia) to be looked at as three-star attributes compared to absolutely budget types like our British attributes which mainly not have some additional comforts besides chambers. Keulen said Premier Inn is dating a great mixture of business and leisure travellers, and expects the initial big of web traffic to result from the UK and Middle-East because they areas will likely be more familiar with the Leading Inn brand. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Premier Inn and its Plans in Singapore" essay for you Create order He explained: Our game-plan as of this point would be to produce ourselves well over the South-east Asia market as its still comparatively progressive. The house is designed to focus on a blending of both business and discernment holidaymakers giving birth into a value-for-money encounter since the regions market the excursion section net income to increase swiftly. Singapore carries many things going from an advantage standpoint for it. Best pulls contain: Proximity to China Singapore has critical transaction and enterprise bonds with Beijing and is culturally approximately China along with them both geographically. As an effect will Singapore, as China grows. Economy Singapore produces a tremendous pharmaceuticals market in addition to considerable financial-services, tourism in addition to transport sectors. What this implies is its well positioned to weather almost any potential economic thunderstorms thatll appear along. Free trade doctrine The Heritage Foundation recently positioned Singapore as the 2nd-freest economic climate on the planet after Hong Kong. It totally was fairly reduced government spending as a portion of gross domestic product, powerful property-rights along with comparatively low levels of corruption (cooperative third with Sweden and only behind Denmark and Nz). 2 Job Design Job design is the procedure for Work arrangement (or re-arrangement) directed at decreasing or maybe controlling job dissatisfaction together with employee alienation arising from insistent and mechanistic jobs. Through assignment layout, organizations try to amass amounts that are output by honoring low-monetary rewards for example larger satisfaction from a feeling in gathering the obstacle that is improved collectively with obligation of the perform of one of personal achievement. Assignment improvement obligation growth, job rotation, and job simplification would be the different techniques used in employment layout workout. 2.1 Design for efficiency If jobs are performed by employees as efficiently because they can, not only does the firm gain from better performance per worker too as lower costs, but additionally employees needs to be somewhat less tired. This viewpoint has for decades formed the foundation of outdated fashioned technologies that was commercial. This process searches for the standard method of construction be utilized in order to maximize performance. 2.2 Design for mental that is capacity The sam e as the body, the mind too has functionality and limits. Businesses get taken numerous ideas to gather his difficulties. For instance, several get collectively with confining the number of World wide-web dialogue organizations to which employees may register accepted policies limiting private utilization of company e-mail. 2.3 Ergonomics The research of the conversation between people structure as well as the qualities of the actual physical surrounding is named ergonomics. The goal of ergonomics will likely be by structuring the specific physical office across how the whole body works, to minimize genuine physical tension on the employee. 2.4 Motivation A normal provide attention to performance would not ever achieve guy resource objects. Recalled factors that could get work stimulating to staff should be taken by job la yout. One that shows how exactly to get work more suggestion is the Job Feature Model produced by Hackman. This design identifies occupations in relation to five qualities: a. Skill range empowers an individual to produce choices concerning the way the function may be carried away. b. Endeavor identity the amount to which the responsibility holds a significant effect on the lifestyles of other people. c. Undertaking worth to which somebody will get magnificent specifics of performance usefulness from the execute itself. d. Autonomy the college degree to which the job the degree to which work wants a variety of skills to bring out the undertakings called for. e. Suggestions the extent the makings to which a job requires submitting a whole part of function. 3 Recruitment Strategy for Singapore Strategy Description Possible Tactics Online Recruiting A large percentage of employees hired by world trade agencies for basic projects seek their initial Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âcareer job.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã The majority are small, either pure out of college or university, looking to establish a new career, or relocating to a fresh area. The newspapers want-ads are not a real recruitment resource for many of todayÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s applicants. Placing vacancy announcements on the web is more effective as well as economical than using most traditional forms of advertising. www.Monster.com www.CareerBuilder.com www.Jobs.net Campus Recruiting and Job Fairs The two specialist and paraprofessional borrowers can be effectively selected at responsibility fairs launched by state workforce improvement agencies. College recruiting could be a very efficient method for attracting applicants for specialist work. Send organization of Human resources representative with an experienced public worker or maybe frontline ceo to fairs Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" presents a possibility for job seekers to ask both responsibility precise and appointing process/benefits inquiries. University Partner-ships Developing a variety of recruitment techniques with spot universities, community educational institutions as well as Universities of Dance to promote pupils to go after professions in the music appreciation. Collaborate with university deans together with professors to help generate pupil interest in the theme. Targeted Recruit-ment You may need an even more various workforce that more advantageous displays the consumer population you serve. For instance, you may need to hire personnel with certain language skills, or with specialized degrees fahrenheit (e.g., MSWs or perhaps Music Appreciation). Focus on area job fairs to enhance selection among modern human resources. See an example by the El Paso District, Colorado, Unit of Music Appreciation who developed a Variety Coalition to recruit together with sustain minority team. Employees as Recruiters The following action beyond Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âword of mouthÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã signing up is motivating staff to recruit other folks. Issue periodic reminders to team that vacancies exist as well as their referrals are liked. Offer Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ârecruitment bonusesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã to employees that send borrowers who definitely are hopefully chosen. Tie the bonus to the wonderful achievement of the probationary period of time. 4 Selection Strategy Employment selection technique theorizes that by fitting your corporations requires to the candidate perfect for the job, you maximize staff efficiency, retaining disbursement and period and can reduce employee turnover. A businesss human sources section department may create and manage the staffing procedure, from recruiting to choice. Your small business many probably wouldnt get an HR section which means owner or manager generally presents this job. 4.1 Knowledge, Skills and Abilities Some of the very most dedication methods that are traditional is definitely to pick assortments focused around analyzing out, aptitudes along with restricts or. This pick technique begins with trade assessment. The human belongings separation inspections everyone else business and makes function not general that once overs all induced learning, aptitudes and limits needed to do the job. 4.2 Multistage Selection Strategies A As a substantial portion of the contemplate a multistage assor tment strategy joins different evaluation electronics. The resources office that is individual is in control of making certain that it is really linked to the requirements of the empty place and favouring every assessment device. Delineations of distinct stages in a multistage strength of thoughts technique are personality assessments that are capabilities, tests, talks with and also illustration execute exhibits. 4.3 Conjunctive Selection Strategy Right after the human sources department that is beings uses a layout that is conjunctive, varied evaluation devices are supervised by it in a session of action of degrees. On the away chance that the individual does really ineffectually beginning evaluation, they have been abstained from your pool of competitors. Evaluation tools have to be thoroughly questioned for therefore that the possibility isnt lost focused around less significant standards in comparison with the one that is see in the future also, when applying this therap y. 5 Implementation The moment the HR strategy is created, the strategy must be integrated. Sometimes, firms invest proceeds and a while building strategies which can be generated definitely not utilized along with in a closet. This mistake might be reduced by companies and create a strategy which will aid their on-line enterprize pile up by creating a workable human-resource plan. The method, although a motivation of the company, is needed to be adaptable to satisfy with the truly changing truly wants of the company. Executing a strategy that is new is likely to be tedious and confusing. 6 Conclusion Selecting for a meet up yet unsubstantial recruiting as well as commitment, the best competition for section can potentially be preference will undoubtedly be be pleased about big response, reduced social troubles as well as impedance to surgeries, support, customer team as well as resilient prices. It is actually the obligation of a manager to pull essentially workplace specialists as well as direly understand about methods that are straightforward to maintain them up. This conventional is the inverse of Europe where occupations searching of company rivals are not unacceptable. Their recruiting strategy should be actually regulated by managers as well as activities to carry through of purchasing states conviction.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Postmodernism refuses to be pinned down and defined by a set of definitive characteristics or parameters. Its fluid definition begs to be poked and prodded, unwilling to offer a solid answer of what constitutes a Postmodern text. Similarly, the construct of adolescent identity ebbs and flows, now influenced by the advent of social media and its new genre of storytelling. Postmodernism and adolescence together form an interesting perspective that has been catalyzed by Young Adult Literature. The disregard for Young Adult Literature as a substantive genre worthy of critical study mirrors the cultural disregard for adolescence as a valid human experience, a tension that can be alleviated by a Postmodern reading of YA texts. Postmodern themes have been creeping into Young Adult Literature for decades, testing the water to see if this genre could host its disruptive behaviors and outlandish ideas. S.E. HintonÃ¢â¬â¢s 1967 novel, The Outsiders, plays with tenets of Postmodern fiction but does not fully submerse itself in the chaos of the theory. HintonÃ¢â¬â¢s book toes the line between a traditional linear text and that of a full-on Postmodern novel, such as W.D. MyersÃ¢â¬â¢s turn of the century publication Monster. Evidenced by scholarly studies of the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s tropes and themes, Monster embodies YALÃ¢â¬â¢s embrace of Postmodernism and fits snugly within the generally agreed upon characteristics of the theory both in form and content. More recent and less critically studied, John GreenÃ¢â¬â¢s The Fault inShow MoreRelatedChildren Of Dust : A Memoir Of Pakistan1362 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesveneration and determination for his religion. Likewise this agreement did without a doubt control his life for the accompanying thirty years. As a child encountering youth in a Pakistan desert town, he cheerfully gets a handle on the sweetness of his adolescence and young manliness among his mother and father, Ammi and Pops, with all the fondness and strictness of a Muslim family in a Muslim country, enveloped by diverse grandparents, close relatives, uncles, and cousins. I especially loved his delineationsRead MoreThe Wondrous Life Of Oscar Wao : Gender And Identity1837 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesa nerd which leads to the lack of romance in his adolescence and adulthood. In an article by Joori Joyce Lee it says: Ã¢â¬Å"Growing up as a ghetto nerd, or a smart kid in a poor-ass community, Diaz felt like a mutant because he found himself to be an outsider in both the Dominican subculture and mainstream white American society.Ã¢â¬ (Lee, pg 23). Oscar could never really fit in with his peers or even with Dominicans, he is always considered an outsider to them. Ã¢â¬Å"Everybody noticed his lack of game and
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about the High Performance Work Practice. Answer: Introduction: High performance work practice is one of the major policies of human resource strategies in order to stimulate employees for enhancing the organizational performance. It has been observed that organizations success is highly dependent on the performance of employees. The service provided by every individual employee is the most effective weapon to earn organizational revenue. People from different geographical markets tend to be associated with a particular business organization as its employees. Therefore, human resource managers are primarily responsible on how to develop the employee performance at the workplace. Harvey Norman is popularly known as one of the largest multinational retail companies situated in Australia. Among the several retail sectors, Harvey Norman primarily deals with furniture, bedding, computer, communications, electrical products and so many. Behind gaining the recognition of multinational countries this particular organization has implemented major strategi es and policies at the workplace (harveynorman.com.au, 2017). Among those strategies, the importance of high performance work practice is most prominent. While dealing with the employees, the human resource managers of Harvey Norman have always aimed to motivate the spirit of these employees so that they can perform well for the further progress of business. This particular study has provided a critical evaluation on how this particular organization has applied high performance work practice at the workplace for stimulating the employee. Some of the most effective barriers in implementing this specific policy have also been discussed in this particular study. However, while discussing the impact of high performance work practice on Harvey Norman some of the scholars have expressed numerous opinions regarding this specific topic. The study has critically evaluated on how Harvey Norman with the help of this particular strategy is able to motivate the employees for rendering the business success (harveynorman.com.au, 2017). Discussion: Kehoe and Wright (2013) opined that three major aspects of employee engagement are there that includes cognitive aspect, emotional aspect and behavioral aspect. As per the cognitive aspect, the concept of the employee regarding the organization, its managers, leaders and policies is most prominent. Based on the organizational cultures and behaviors, the relationship between managers and employees the success of a particular business organization is highly dependent. As per the emotional aspect, it has been implied that employees should have a feeling for each other while working together within a business organization. In other word, while working within a team every individual employee should show their sympathetic attitudes towards each other despite having different cultural attitudes and backgrounds. On the other hand, behavioral aspect includes employees should maintain a proper behavior and discipline at the workplace. However, these major three aspects is highly significant fo r rendering the success of a business organization. Headquartered in New South Wales this particular organization, Harvey Norman has already established their entire business process in multinational countries. Millions of employees are directly associated for the progress of this specific organization. Therefore, the human resource managers of Harvey Norman have decided to implement high performance work practice at the workplace in order to encourage the employees towards meeting the business goal. Jensen, Patel and Messersmith (2013) stated that employee motivation is the concept that aims to generate the spirit of employees for providing their best services to the customers. The primary objectives of Harvey Norman in implementing high performance work practice are raising the level of employee performance. The business experts of Harvey Norman in order to increase the performance level of employees have followed some of the major strategies. Boxall (2012) opined that the implementation of incentive and bonus scheme for those emplo yees who are flexible enough to provide overtime duty is one of the most effective strategies to encourage the employees towards reaching business goal. Patel, Messersmith and Lepak (2013) opined that the employees of this particular organization are flexible enough to receive necessary facilities and benefits from the organizational managers due to any kind of health issue. The employers of Harvey Norman tend to take entire responsibilities for those employees who have to face any major health issue at the workplace. Therefore, the employees do not have to face challenges while facing health issue within the organization. On the other hand, the human resource managers of Harvey Norman by arranging an interpersonal communication at the weekend tend to know about the necessary problems and barriers that the employees have to face at the workplace. As a result, the internal relation between every individual employee and human resource manager is very much effective. Niehaves, Kffer and Ortbach (2012) stated that these kinds of positive effects highly reflect on the performance level of the employees. Harvey Norman while implementing an individual employee within the business organization tends to focus on their skill and level of competency rather than their religious backgrounds. As a result, this specific organization had to face innumerable problems at the workplace. People, belonging to diverse cultures and attitudes, work together at the organization of Harvey Norman. While making teamwork the employees have to face several barriers such as communication barrier, psychological barriers, cultural barriers, religious barriers and so on. Due to the linguistic barrier, especially the employee of Harvey Norman failed to exchange important information with each other. As a result, this kind of communication gap highly affects the entire performance level of employees. Waal and Sivro (2012) stated that the implication of high performance work practice implies that people belonging to different cultural attitudes should make a group discussion session at every weekend. In this particular group discussion, people from different cultural background take part and share their opinion regarding a particular topic. The primary purpose of Harvey Norman is to get those employees involved towards a specific topic so that the employee can take collective decisio n. Collective decision is possessed with major positive impact. In order to implement high performance work practice Harvey Norman has decided to follow participative style of leadership at the workplace. Chadwick, Super and Kwon (2015) opined that the most effective reasons of using participative form of leadership style at the workplace are employee engagement. In this specific form of leadership style, the leaders involve the employees to share their opinion regarding the business goal. As a result, both the employers and the employees have the equal right to take a business decision. Robbins et al. (2015) stated that participative form of leadership is not very much effective every time for enhancing the performance level of employees. Harvey Norman has faced the similar experience. It has been observed that the employees of Harvey Norman at a time started to misuse the leadership style. They tend to express their opinion in such a way the business leaders had to face difficulties in maintaining that particular decision for business progress. In this kind of situation, a major gap had been raised in between the employees and the business leaders. Depending on the situation, organizational managers have to implement leadership style at the workplace, be it autocratic, participative or transformational. Meyers and van Woerkom (2014) stated that high performance work practice is the conceptual framework that imposed the business employees for performing well towards reaching the business goal. This particular organizational practice enables the employees to perform well in order to meet the needs and demands of employees. Behind making Harvey Norman as a multinational retail sector, the contributions of employees are undeniable. The human resource managers always like to prefer providing professional training and guidance to the employees of Harvey Norman with the help of which they become successful in meeting the current trend of market. On the other hand, this particular organization is having e-commerce business process as well (Patel Conklin, 2012). With the help of e-commerce business, the employees can communicate with the customers of different geographical boundaries. Therefore, with the help of high performance work practice the employees have been provided an effective tr aining for increasing their performance on technological skill. As a result, the employees of Harvey Norman are efficient for handling any kind of sudden technological barriers at the workplace. The performance of employees being based on technologies is very much progressive in meeting customers expectation. Conclusion: The entire study has provided in-depth overview about the importance of and significance of high performance work practice on the employees. Human resource managers in order to encourage the employees at workplace tend to implement some major initiatives. Maintaining an effective employee relation at workplace is highly important with the help of which employees can be motivated towards performing well at within the organization. Harvey Norman after expanding their business in different geographical boundaries has decided to appoint the employees from different cultural background. Diversity at the workplace enables the organization to make collective decision. On the other hand, after the growth of revenue, the employees of Harvey Norman get numerous additional facilities and benefits because of which employees show their rate of interest for performing well. On the other hand, one of the most effective reasons of implementing high performance work practice is employee motivation. Harvey Norman likes to follow some of the most important motivational theories at their workplace in order to push the employee towards meeting the business target. At the same time, it is also undeniable that this particular practice is able to maintain organizational culture and behavior of Harvey Norman. Reference List: Boxall, P. (2012). High?performance work systems: what, why, how and for whom?.Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources,50(2), 169-186. Chadwick, C., Super, J. F., Kwon, K. (2015). Resource orchestration in practice: CEO emphasis on SHRM, commitment?based HR systems, and firm performance.Strategic Management Journal,36(3), 360-376. de Waal, A., Sivro, M. (2012). The relation between servant leadership, organizational performance, and the high-performance organization framework.Journal of Leadership Organizational Studies,19(2), 173-190. harveynorman.com.au., (2017). Shop Online for Computers, Electrical, Furniture, Bedding, Bathrooms Flooring | Harvey Norman Australia. (2017).Harveynorman.com.au. Retrieved 15 April 2017, from https://www.harveynorman.com.au Jensen, J. M., Patel, P. C., Messersmith, J. G. (2013). High-performance work systems and job control: Consequences for anxiety, role overload, and turnover intentions.Journal of Management,39(6), 1699-1724. Kehoe, R. R., Wright, P. M. (2013). The impact of high-performance human resource practices on employees attitudes and behaviors.Journal of management,39(2), 366-391. Kroon, B., Van De Voorde, K., Timmers, J. (2013). High performance work practices in small firms: a resource-poverty and strategic decision-making perspective.Small Business Economics,41(1), 71-91. Meyers, M. C., van Woerkom, M. (2014). The influence of underlying philosophies on talent management: Theory, implications for practice, and research agenda.Journal of World Business,49(2), 192-203. Niehaves, B., Kffer, S., Ortbach, K. (2012). IT consumerizationa theory and practice review. Patel, P. C., Conklin, B. (2012). Perceived labor productivity in small firmsthe effects of high?performance work systems and group culture through employee retention.Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice,36(2), 205-235. Patel, P. C., Messersmith, J. G., Lepak, D. P. (2013). Walking the tightrope: An assessment of the relationship between high-performance work systems and organizational ambidexterity.Academy of Management Journal,56(5), 1420-1442. Robbins, J., Garman, A. N., Song, P. H., McAlearney, A. S. (2012). How high-performance work systems drive health care value: an examination of leading process improvement strategies.Quality Management in Healthcare, 21(3), 188-202.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
You Decide Virginia Pollard Essay You Decide Project Virginia Pollard worked as a cashier and clerk for Teddy Supplies, a family-owned chain of film production equipment supply stores in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. During a routine performance evaluation, Virginias supervisor at Teddys complained that she made too many personal phone calls when she worked in the West Orange store. The supervisor noted this on Virginias annual review, and warned her to keep personal calls to a bare minimum while at work. Soon thereafter, Teddy transferred Pollard to guard film equipment in the main warehouse behind the storefront; Virginia couldnt make personal calls there, and her work became exemplary. Her performance evaluation three months after her transfer was meeting expectations with no negative comments. Virginia Pollard was the only woman working in the warehouse, and she was often the victim of pranks perpetrated by her six male colleagues. Her co-workers taped her drawers shut, locked her out of the guard shack she sat in to watch the inventory, filled the guard shack with trash, and backed a forklift up to the door and made it backfire in her ear. One day a Teddy delivery driver sat in Pollards chair and, when she tried to push him out of it, he bent her over his lap and spanked her. Pollards new supervisor, Steve King, rarely enforced Teddys rules against smoking, horseplay, foul language, and sexual harassment, and often indulged in such behaviors himself. We will write a custom essay sample on You Decide Virginia Pollard specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on You Decide Virginia Pollard specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on You Decide Virginia Pollard specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Teddys had a written sexual harassment policy which included a method for employees to report sexual harassment the method included filing a complaint with the direct supervisor unless the direct supervisor was the perpetrator. In that event, the employee was to file the complaint online at www. ReportTeddysafely. com. The form for reporting was a one page document. A copy of the policy which Virginia Pollard signed is located here. The policy specifically states, In the event of a violation of this policy, employees should report the violation to their direct supervisor, unless doing so would put the employee at risk of further discrimination or harassment. In that case, the employee should report using the company website form which will submit the incident to Human Resources. Pollard never filed a complaint with Steve King, her supervisor; she also did not file a complaint at the website, although she claimed she told King in July 2008 that she felt she was being picked on by the guys she worked with. She claims Steve King told her to grow some balls and to get over herself. She testified during the NJ Human Rights Commission hearing that she tried to file an anonymous complaint but the website wasnt working the day she tried to do so. In August of 2008, King and the other warehouse workers put a sign on a truck that read HARDHAT REQUIRED/BRA OPTIONAL. King and another employee called Pollard over to look at the sign and encouraged her to do as it said. She refused and tried to walk away. King promised not to report her to management, whereupon she lifted one side of her shirt in the back and exposed part of her bra on her backside. Upper management learned of the incident that October by a co-worker who filed an anonymous complaint online. After a brief investigation, Pollard was fired for exposing her bra. None of the men were disciplined. A man replaced Pollard in the guard shack. That November, Pollard filed a charge of sex discrimination with the New Jersey Commission on Human Rights. The Commission found that Pollard had been the victim of sex discrimination and that Teddys reasons for firing her were pretext, and awarded her back wages and damages. Teddys appealed to the circuit court, including in their case that Pollard had committed several infractions, including participating in the spanking incident. They reported that Pollard had failed to report any sexual harassment and included a copy of their sexual harassment policy as part of their defense case. The Circuit Court found that Teddy did have good reason to discipline Pollard but that firing her was in fact disparate treatment when compared with the utter lack of discipline given to King. The circuit court reversed the Commissions award of damages because it believed that Teddy had been right to discipline Pollard, but they ordered Teddys to reinstate Pollard to her old position. Pollard appealed to the New Jersey Court of Appeals and refused to accept her job back. Sexual Harassment Policy: Teddys Supplies Sexual Harassment Policy All employees of Teddys Supplies are required to read and follow this policy. This policy was implemented on January 1, 2002, and is in effect until further notice. Scope of Policy This policy prohibits any illegal discrimination or harassment of any employee by another employee, co-worker, supervisor, or vendor. All employees are entitled to a harassment and discrimination free environment. The company has a zero-tolerance policy with respect to harassment or discrimination. A safe work environment is the goal of Teddys Supplies. Responsibility and Reporting structure All employees are responsible for following this policy. In the event of a violation of this policy, employees should report the violation to their direct supervisor, unless doing so would put the employee at risk of further discrimination or harassment. In that case, the employee should report using the company website form which will submit the incident to Human Resources. Employees have the option of anonymously reporting incidents, but doing so does not provide the employee with any protection under the law. (Access the reporting form on the benefits page of the intranet. Behavior Banned All illegal, discriminatory, or harassing behavior is prohibited. Discipline invoked Employees found to violate this policy may be terminated, suspended from work without pay, or transferred. This document will be considered the warning in the event of termination. No other warning is required. In the event a suspension or transference is a result of a violation of this policy, any 2nd offense will be met with immediate dismissal. In the event a compla int against an employee is made, the employee will have the right of defense at a hearing prior to termination. This hearing will be held by the CEO and Director of HR, or by a committee created at their request or direction. No retaliation Employees will not be retaliated against making for valid complaints. In the event it is determined that an employee has filed a fraudulent complaint, this will be grounds for disciplinary action, including suspension without pay, transference or termination. Limitation period All complaints for violations of this policy must be made within 90 days of the occurrence of the behavior or they are waived under this policy. Signed: 2004 Virginia Pollard Date: 8-12- You Decide Question #1: Teddys Supplies CEO has asked you to advise him on the facts of the case, and your opinion of their potential liability. He wants to settle the case. Write a memo to him which states your view of whether the company is exposed to liability on all issues you feel are in play. Include in your memo any laws which apply and any precedential cases either for or against Teddys case which impact liability. Include in the memo your suggested offer of settlement to Virginia. Back up your offer using your analysis of the case against Teddys. (Points: 30) As an advisor, I would inform Teddys Supplies CEO the situation is Virginia Pollard, the only woman working in the warehouse, is filing charges against the company for sexual harassment. The fact of the matter is the employees in the warehouse are guilty of disparate treatment towards Virginia Pollard as warehouse workers put a sign on a truck that read HARDHAT REQUIRED/BRA OPTIONAL along with other discriminatory actions (pranks, spanking incident, etc. ). However, per the Sexual Harassment Policy implemented by the company, Virginia did not ever file sexual harassment complaints when given the opportunity to. As a conclusion, I believe Teddys Supplies as a company, is responsible for the hostile work environment created around Virginia Pollard; my advice would be to offer a settlement to Virginia Pollard in the amount of $5,000. I believe the $5,000 is a sufficient settlement because according to Burlington Industries v. Kimberly Ellerth case, I believe that Virginia Pollard was been a victim of a hostile work environment. You Decide Question #2: The Circuit Court overturned the decision of the NJ Human Rights Commission which had found that Pollard was the victim of Sexual Harassment and disparate treatment. Please answer these questions: A. Define sexual harassment, including both quid pro quo and hostile environment harassment. Which type(s) do you feel Pollard was a victim of (if either. ) Provide law or a case to support your position. If you feel Pollard was not a victim of harassment in this case, explain why you feel that way, and provide law or a case to support your position. (10 points) B. Name an appellate court case where an employer was found liable for either quid pro quo or hostile environment sexual harassment. Describe the facts of the case, and the decision the court came to in the case. Explain whether you think that case applies to Pollards case (why or why not) and whether you would want to use this case in Teddys favor or whether Pollard may use it in her favor. Include the citation to the case and a link to it online. (10 points) C. Do you agree that Pollard was disparately treated? Why or why not? In your answer, define disparate treatment. 10 points. ) D. Does the existence of a sexual harassment policy provide a defense to Teddys in this case? Why or why not? (Include the name and citation of at least two federal or state sexual harassment case(s) which provide precedential support to your defense statement. ) (10 points. ) (Points: 40) A) Sexual harassment is the act of inappropriate actions insinuating sexual conduct. The two types of sexual harassmen t are quid pro quo and hostile work environment. Quid pro quo is the action of getting something for giving something of value. Hostile work environment is when an employer engages in inappropriate behavior making the working place not up to reasonable standard. According to Burlington Industries v. Kimberly Ellerth, I believe that Virginia Pollard was a victim of a hostile work environment. In this case the Supreme Court ruled that workers can still bring sexual harassment cases against employers even if the harassment is not reported. B) A court case when the employer was found liable for sexual harassment is the Burlington Industries v. Kimberly Ellerth. In this case, Kimberly described her experiences at work as feeling humiliated and embarrassed. Kimberly also claimed to be an emotional and mental victim of sexual harassment by her supervisor but never reported the incidents to anyone at work. This case applies to Virginia Pollards case and I would want to use this case in her favor because she has been the victim to humiliation when her coworker bent her over his lap and spanked her. This case applies directly to Virginia Pollard because even though she never filed a complaint with her supervisor Steve King, nor did she file a complaint at the website online, she can still bring sexual harassment cases against employers even if the harassment is not reported. http://www. law. cornell. edu/supct/html/97-569. ZO. html) C) I do agree that Pollard was disparately treated. Disparate treatment is mistreatment of employees differently because of their membership in a certain protected class (Race, Color, Religion, National Origin, Sex). In this case, Pollards employees treated her with discriminatory conduct because she was the onl y woman working in the warehouse when the sign posted on a truck read HARDHAT REQUIRED/BRA OPTIONAL. This sign discriminated Virginia Pollard because she was the only woman in the warehouse amongst six other employees. D) The existence of sexual harassment policy does not provide a defense to Teddys in this case. Even though Teddys policy provides the opportunity for employees to report misconduct, it does not dismiss the employer from being liable for conduct of employees. Two cases that support this are the Burlington Industries v. Ellerth case and Burrell v. Star Nursery, Inc. Both of these cases state that the employer must be liable for the sexual harassing conduct of their supervisors even if they neither knew nor should have known that the misconduct was occurring. You Decide Question #3: Review the sexual harassment policy which Teddys has in place and which Virginia Pollard signed. Virginia Pollard claims she had planned to make an anonymous complaint but the website allowing that was down on the day she tried to do so. During the Human Rights Commission case, a review of the website statistics shows that Virginia accessed the website for downloading dental coverage forms at least three times during the time frame of the alleged discrimination. The commission determined that this ability of Teddys to track employees use of the site was a violation of their anonymity and therefore, refused to consider this information. The circuit court did consider this in their decision. Provide three recommendations to the CEO for a way to ensure that employees in the future can not claim technical issues for why they didnt make a complaint. Explain, in your recommendations, the legal consequences to an employee if they do not utilize the complaint mechanism of the sexual harassment policy. Support these recommendations with current case law. (Points: 20) Three recommendations I would make to the CEO of Teddys to ensure that employees in the future could not claim technical issues for why they didnt make a complaint would be providing alternative options in reporting this matter. The three recommendations I would give to the CEO of Teddys would be: 1) Create a drop box/1-800 number/multiple parties employees could contact in order to file their complaints into so anonymity still existed. The legal consequence to an employee for not utilizing the complaint mechanisms would be negligence. The addition of the additional options juxtaposed with the existing online reporting option gives each employee an additional opportunity to report any sexual harassment cases at the workplace or at home. Similar to Brenneman v. Famous Daves of America, the legal consequence to the employee for not reporting events of sexual harassment would be the employer being able to defend themselves from sexual harassment allegations having given the employee almost any opportunity to report this misconduct. ) Implement a periodic harassment training to supervisors and employees to ensure that they know and remember that they must take the appropriate action to avoid sexual harassment law suits. By training the employees and supervisors of this sexual harassment periodically, it constantly reminds them of the differences of appropriate and inappropriate behavior and what actions to take in the i nstances of misconduct. In addition to the training, prompt and swift implementation for correction action must be taken to those found guilty of misconduct. Moreover, due to Suders v. Pennsylvania State Police employers should also train their supervisors to know that the burden of proof dismissing them from any liability is also their responsibility in the case a sexual harassment suit. 3) Become more involved in every aspect of the company. Spend time with each department within the company to exercise reasonable care to prevent or correct any harassing behavior. By doing this, the employer may then claim affirmative defense because a) the company has an effective internal complaint procedure for reporting incidents of workplace harassment, and (b) the employee unreasonably failed to take advantage of that procedure. Upon any misconduct, the legal consequence for the employee not reporting the misconduct would be the employer using affirmative defense to his advantage. You Decide Question #4: How would Pollards case be impacted if her replacement had been a female? Would her case be different? Would her damages be different? Explain your answer. (Points: 10) Pollards case could be viewed differently if Pollards replacement had been a female, because Teddys had initially fired her for exposing her bra. If Pollard had been replaced by another woman, I dont think it would be viewed as disparate treatment because it would have been just seen as personal misconduct. In addition, if Pollards replacement had been a woman, the Circuit Court may have supported Teddys discipline to Pollard and still reversed the Commissions award of damages because it believed that Teddy had been right to discipline Pollard.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Athletes Deserve High Salaries Andy Huckabay PE 401 January 24, 2001 Missy Frost Are athletes getting paid too much? Maybe they are, but I don't really believe that athletes are over paid. People don't understand how the lifestyle of a professional athlete really is or who would get the money we spend if the athlete's didn't get it. They just see those astronomical numbers and think that it is unfair that us working class people don't make that amount of money. Pro athletes are some of the most dedicated, hardest working people in world. They don't just play during their season, they have to train year round or they will lose their job. The psychological stress placed upon athletes is overwhelming. They are constantly worrying about their bodies, because if they get hurt, their career may be over. They get paid to compete, that in itself is stressful. It is a business, just like lawyers, salesmen, and companies. You just don't hear about the kind of money those people make. According to Nathan Durkee, it truly is a business and he breaks it down on his web site. Here's how it works: Fans pay to watch the game. Numerous companies pay the team to endorse various products. Clothing and apparel companies pay the team to make jerseys, shirts, hats, etc. Different broadcasting corporations pay the team to cover and air the game. All of this money goes to the owner of the particular team. The owners, in turn, then pay their players their salaries. The truth of the matter is that the owners actually make the most money, and only distribute a small portion of it to their hard working employees. Sam Felsenfeld pointed out in one of his articles that it is a simple matter of supply and demand when it comes to fans paying ridiculous amounts of money for tickets. Owners, with a little help from economists and accountants, have figured out they can charge $30 a seat and fill the stands Sunday after Sunday. So why in the name of capitalism charge only $29. As the system works now, players' salaries depend on the size of the revenue pool. About 95 percent of revenue in the NFL comes from gate receipts and television contracts. In closing, athletes are not at fault for getting paid the amount of money they get. Most will even tell you they get paid too much. But don't try to make them feel guilty about making that kind of money when we as a society worship them like we do. Most athletes give back to the community and donate to charities. The NFL and the United Way have been working together for years. Athlete's salaries must stay high to keep the level of competition where it is, and keep striving to get better. Why not complain about Hollywood actors getting paid astronomical amounts of money for making a movie. How are they different, they are in the entertainment business and don't have to deal with anything close to what athletes have to endure. Sports and Games